How to format your references using the Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cheke RA. Ecology. Thinking long term. Science. 2007;318(5850):577-578.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sieweke MH, Allen JE. Beyond stem cells: self-renewal of differentiated macrophages. Science. 2013;342(6161):1242974.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gubbins D, Jones AL, Finlay CC. Fall in Earth’s magnetic field is erratic. Science. 2006;312(5775):900-902.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Teder P, Vandivier RW, Jiang D, et al. Resolution of lung inflammation by CD44. Science. 2002;296(5565):155-158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ballast DK. Interior Detailing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Imani Yengejeh S. A Primer on the Geometry of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Modifications. (Kazemi SA, Öchsner A, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Okecha AA, Newton-Fisher NE. The Diet of Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. In: Newton-Fisher NE, Notman H, Paterson JD, Reynolds V, eds. Primates of Western Uganda. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. Springer; 2006:61-73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew E. China Successfully Completes Mission To The Moon And Back. IFLScience. Published November 2, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Safety Inspector Training Survey Data, an E-Supplement to GAO-05-728. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hidalgo F. Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stellin S. A Place to Stay and to Play. New York Times. August 17, 2014:TR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics in Neuropsychiatry
ISSN (print)2405-8017

Other styles