How to format your references using the Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allen RM. Geophysics. Transforming earthquake detection? Science. 2012;335(6066):297-298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams BRG, Sen GC. Immunology. A viral on/off switch for interferon. Science. 2003;300(5622):1100-1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lightowlers RN, Taylor RW, Turnbull DM. Mutations causing mitochondrial disease: What is new and what challenges remain? Science. 2015;349(6255):1494-1499.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garb JE, Dimauro T, Vo V, Hayashi CY. Silk genes support the single origin of orb webs. Science. 2006;312(5781):1762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pandey JN. The Hilbert Transform of Schwartz Distributions and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1995.
An edited book
Malyshkin V, ed. Parallel Computing Technologies: 13th International Conference, PaCT 2015, Petrozavodsk, Russia, August 31-September 4, 2015, Proceedings. Vol 9251. 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ito M, Kari L, Kincaid Z, Seki S. Duplication in DNA Sequences. In: Condon A, Harel D, Kok JN, Salomaa A, Winfree E, eds. Algorithmic Bioprocesses. Natural Computing Series. Springer; 2009:43-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry.

Blog post
Fang J. Desert Bird Stays Cool By Losing Heat Through Its Giant Bill. IFLScience. Published May 24, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. TVA’s Computer Needs Are Valid and ADP Management Is Improving. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tu K-H. Structural and Functional Analysis of Apolipoprotein E3/E4 Hybrid. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson M. In Officers’ 4-Wheeled ‘Home,’ A Shattered Sense of Security. New York Times. July 7, 2017:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics in Neuropsychiatry
ISSN (print)2405-8017

Other styles