How to format your references using the Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Khalil AM. Journal club. A geneticist views two theories of X-chromosome inactivation in a broad context. Nature. 2009;458(7236):263.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wen L, Tang F. Computational biology: How to catch rare cell types. Nature. 2015;525(7568):197-198.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannetti V, Lloyd S, Maccone L. Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchronization. Nature. 2001;412(6845):417-419.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Acosta IF, Laparra H, Romero SP, et al. tasselseed1 is a lipoxygenase affecting jasmonic acid signaling in sex determination of maize. Science. 2009;323(5911):262-265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lui SH. Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Giulietti A, ed. Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration Towards Radiobiology and Medicine. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lepisto E. Azerbaijan. In: Hörner W, Döbert H, Reuter LR, Kopp B von, eds. The Education Systems of Europe. Springer International Publishing; 2015:61-76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry.

Blog post
Hale T. US-Born NASA Scientist Detained At Airport And Told To Hand Over Smartphone. IFLScience. Published February 14, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Contracts: Army Needs to Correct Budget Disclosure Deficiencies. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carpenter DM. Understanding the effect of conflicting information on medication adherence for vasculitis patients. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. November 23, 2016:MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics in Neuropsychiatry
ISSN (print)2405-8017

Other styles