How to format your references using the Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman T. Mining the proteome. Nature. 2004;430(6995):109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sourjik V, Berg HC. Functional interactions between receptors in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature. 2004;428(6981):437-441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubi Y, Meir Y, Avishai Y. Nature of the superconductor-insulator transition in disordered superconductors. Nature. 2007;449(7164):876-880.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Arnalds O, Thorarinsdottir EF, Thorsson J, Waldhauserova PD, Agustsdottir AM. An extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajökull 2010 volcanic ash. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edwards DW. Risk Management in Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Khine MS, ed. Perspectives on Scientific Argumentation: Theory, Practice and Research. Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Moussaoui C, Abbou R, Loiseau JJ. Controller Design for a Class of Delayed and Constrained Systems: Application to Supply Chains. In: Seuret A, Özbay H, Bonnet C, Mounier H, eds. Low-Complexity Controllers for Time-Delay Systems. Advances in Delays and Dynamics. Springer International Publishing; 2014:61-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry.

Blog post
Andrews R. African Penguins Are Dying Out Thanks To Climate Change. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Weather Satellites: The U.S. Geostationary Satellite Program Is at a Crossroad. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrews A. Yoga as Mental Health Treatment for Cancer Survivors: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartman S. Keepers of the Spanish Flame. New York Times. December 6, 2015:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics in Neuropsychiatry
ISSN (print)2405-8017

Other styles