How to format your references using the Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. An electoral lecture. Nature. 2002;420(6915):3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otterstrom JJ, van Oijen AM. Biochemistry. Nudging through a nucleosome. Science. 2009;325(5940):547-548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheianov VV, Fal’ko V, Altshuler BL. The focusing of electron flow and a Veselago lens in graphene p-n junctions. Science. 2007;315(5816):1252-1255.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ling GS, Crawford G, Buang N, et al. C1q restrains autoimmunity and viral infection by regulating CD8+ T cell metabolism. Science. 2018;360(6388):558-563.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riegel M, Kroeselberg D, Chindapol A, Premec D. Deploying Mobile WiMAX. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Pan Z, Cheok AD, Müller W, Rhalibi AE, eds. Transactions on Edutainment I. Vol 5080. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdelgawad A, Bayoumi M. Proposed Distributed Kalman Filter. In: Bayoumi M, ed. Resource-Aware Data Fusion Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012:77-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry.

Blog post
Hale T. Explore Five US National Parks In These 360° Interactive Guided Tours. IFLScience. Published August 26, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Spanish Version). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mavromati A. One Foot In. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Logan L. Selfless. New York Times. April 26, 2013:MM54.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics in Neuropsychiatry
ISSN (print)2405-8017

Other styles