How to format your references using the Diabetologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowman L (2003) Different directions? Nature 426:712
A journal article with 2 authors
Simon J, Greiner M (2012) Condensed-matter physics: a duo of graphene mimics. Nature 483:282–284
A journal article with 3 authors
Walsh KJ, Richardson DC, Michel P (2008) Rotational breakup as the origin of small binary asteroids. Nature 454:188–191
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Krekelberg B, Lappe M, Whitney D, et al (2000) The position of moving objects. Science 289:1107a

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiss E, Shadomy HJ, Lyon GM III (2011) Fundamental Medical Mycology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dronkers J (2010) Quality and Inequality of Education: Cross-National Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Horak F (2010) Antiallergic and Vasoactive Drugs for Allergic Rhinitis. In: Pawankar R, Holgate ST, Rosenwasser LJ (eds) Allergy Frontiers: Therapy and Prevention. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 51–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetologia.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Two-Thirds Of Germany Was Powered By Renewable Energy On Easter Sunday. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Proposed Procedure for Access by GAO to Records of Students in the Murphy School District. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gunderson CA (2017) The Moderating Effect of Type of Target on the Relationship between Collective Rumination and Displaced Aggression. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slotnik DE (2017) Pete Flynn, 79; Kept Mets’ 3 Fields Trim. New York Times B15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetologia
ISSN (print)0012-186X
ISSN (online)1432-0428
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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