How to format your references using the Diabetologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E (2002) Alternative therapies leave US commission divided. Nature 416:355
A journal article with 2 authors
Kepecs A, Fishell G (2014) Interneuron cell types are fit to function. Nature 505:318–326
A journal article with 3 authors
Dian BC, Longarte A, Zwier TS (2002) Conformational dynamics in a dipeptide after single-mode vibrational excitation. Science 296:2369–2373
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pérez-Escobar OA, Cámara-Leret R, Antonelli A, et al (2018) Mining threatens Colombian ecosystems. Science 359:1475

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Obayya S (2010) Computational Photonics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Pinto AA (2009) Fine Structures of Hyperbolic Diffeomorphisms. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Griebling TL (2014) Frailty. In: Griebling TL (ed) Geriatric Urology. Springer, New York, NY, pp 47–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetologia.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Hyperloop Could Be Coming To The UK. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Guide for Writing Executive Summaries. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Litt D (2010) Social networking sites and adolescent alcohol use: The role of social images, social norms, and social comparison. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pipher M (2013) Lighting a Spark On the High Plains. New York Times A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetologia
ISSN (print)0012-186X
ISSN (online)1432-0428
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles