How to format your references using the Diabetologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhang W (2014) Voltage-driven spintronic logic gates in graphene nanoribbons. Sci Rep 4:6320
A journal article with 2 authors
Haney CH, Ausubel FM (2015) MICROBIOME. Plant microbiome blueprints. Science 349:788–789
A journal article with 3 authors
Gitlin L, Karelsky S, Andino R (2002) Short interfering RNA confers intracellular antiviral immunity in human cells. Nature 418:430–434
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yao L, Wei T, Zeng A, et al (2014) Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity. Sci Rep 4:6663

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fjeld RA, Eisenberg NA, Compton KL (2007) Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis for Human Health. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Altmann J, Vanmechelen K, Rana OF (2013) Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services: 10th International Conference, GECON 2013, Zaragoza, Spain, September 18-20, 2013. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Cammaerts B, Bruter M, Banaji S, et al (2016) Youth Participation Beyond Voting: Volunteering and Contestation. In: Bruter M, Banaji S, Harrison S, Anstead N (eds) Youth Participation in Democratic Life: Stories of Hope and Disillusion. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 105–132

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetologia.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Philae Reveals Newest Details Of Its Comet. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Special Education: State and Local-Imposed Requirements Complicate Federal Efforts to Reduce Administrative Burden. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kennedy KT (2016) A Heuristic Study of Religious Spirituality and Meaningful Work. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2007) In a Word, Fabulous. New York Times NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetologia
ISSN (print)0012-186X
ISSN (online)1432-0428
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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