How to format your references using the Oikos citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oikos. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nolet, G. 2007. Obituary: F. Anthony Dahlen (1942-2007). - Nature 448: 268.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lotti, M. and Nicotera, P. 2002. Toxicology: a risky business. - Nature 416: 481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Betrouche, M. et al. 2013. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra. - Sci. Rep. 3: 3221.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wilkinson, M. J. et al. 2003. Hybridization between Brassica napus and B. rapa on a national scale in the United Kingdom. - Science 302: 457–459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee 2005. Continuous Direct-Heat Rotary Dryers. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
2016. Arthroscopy and Sport Injuries: Applications in High-level Athletes (P Volpi, Ed.). - Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilson, R. J. and Miner, M. H. 2016. Measurement of Male Sexual Arousal and Interest Using Penile Plethysmography and Viewing Time. - In: Laws, D. R. and O’Donohue, W. (eds), Treatment of Sex Offenders: Strengths and Weaknesses in Assessment and Intervention. Springer International Publishing, pp. 107–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oikos.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015. What It’s Like To Live In A Town That Needs Its Own Polar Bear Jail. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1990. Resolution Trust Corporation: Stronger Information Technology Leadership Needed.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard, G. M. 2012. Roles of vitamin D and calcium in cancer and diet history.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. 2017. Returning, and Inspiring the Likes of Spielberg. - New York Times: C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nolet 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lotti and Nicotera 2002, Nolet 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lotti and Nicotera 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wilkinson et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleOikos
ISSN (print)0030-1299
ISSN (online)1600-0706
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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