How to format your references using the Oikos citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oikos. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jarrold, M. F. 2000. The smallest fullerene. - Nature 407: 26–27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao, S. and Hegde, R. S. 2014. Cell Biology. Local synthesis and disposal. - Science 346: 701–702.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aggarwal, P. K. et al. 2003. Comment on “Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh” (I). - Science 300: 584; author reply 584.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dürr, M. et al. 2002. Probing high-barrier pathways of surface reactions by scanning tunneling microscopy. - Science 296: 1838–1841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Chouikha, M. 2016. Organizational Design for Knowledge Management. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rosenberg, Z. 2016. Terminal Ballistics (E Dekel, Ed.). - Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marinescu, D. G. et al. 2016. DUSTER ZERO—Electric Vehicle Research 4WD. - In: Andreescu, C. and Clenci, A. (eds), Proceedings of the European Automotive Congress EAEC-ESFA 2015. Springer International Publishing, pp. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oikos.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2015. Bizarre Footage Of Parachuting Beavers Emerges Online. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1973. Progress and Problems in Achieving Objectives of School Lunch Program.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker, M. 2009. Industry - higher education partnerships: A case study analysis of learning together.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr 2017. New York City Scraps 644,000 Old Warrants for Minor Offenses. - New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jarrold 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Jarrold 2000, Shao and Hegde 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shao and Hegde 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dürr et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleOikos
ISSN (print)0030-1299
ISSN (online)1600-0706
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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