How to format your references using the Diabetes Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Vries S. Plant science: Precision positioning with peptides. Nature. 522(7557), 424–425 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Nott J, Hayne M. High frequency of “super-cyclones” along the Great Barrier Reef over the past 5,000 years. Nature. 413(6855), 508–512 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
Hill MS, Hitchcock PB, Pongtavornpinyo R. A linear homocatenated compound containing six indium centers. Science. 311(5769), 1904–1907 (2006).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
de Lucas M, Davière J-M, Rodríguez-Falcón M, et al. A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation. Nature. 451(7177), 480–484 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bender HF. Das Gefahrstoffbuch. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Rodrìguez-Merchán EC, editor. Articular Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Rogers ES, MacDonald-Wilson KL. Vocational Capacity among Individuals with Mental Health Disabilities. In: Work Accommodation and Retention in Mental Health. Schultz IZ, Rogers ES (Eds.), Springer, New York, NY, 73–89 (2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Management.

Blog post
Andrew D. Spacing Of Letters, Not Shape Of Letters, Slightly Increases Reading Speed Of Those With Dyslexia [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Executive Office of the President: Analysis of EOP’s 1999 Information Technology Architecture Update and Capital Investment Plan Report. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wellman TE. Employment Discrimination against Military Spouses: Illegal Contrary to Popular Belief and Practice. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Cabrera Puts End to Wild Game With 1 1th-Inning Homer. New York Times, B9 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Management
AbbreviationDiabetes Manag. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)1758-1907
ISSN (online)1758-1915

Other styles