How to format your references using the Diabetes Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nebel CE. Chemistry. Surface-conducting diamond. Science. 318(5855), 1391–1392 (2007).
A journal article with 2 authors
Edmunds JW, Mahadevan LC. Cell signaling. Protein kinases seek close encounters with active genes. Science. 313(5786), 449–451 (2006).
A journal article with 3 authors
Iwata M, Hiyama A, Otaki JM. System-dependent regulations of colour-pattern development: a mutagenesis study of the pale grass blue butterfly. Sci. Rep. 3, 2379 (2013).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dunlop JA, Anderson LI, Kerp H, Hass H. Palaeontology: preserved organs of Devonian harvestmen. Nature. 425(6961), 916 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samara T. ERP and Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gupta NS, editor. Chitin: Formation and Diagenesis. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Chik D, Tripathi GN, Wagatsuma H. A Method to Deal with Prospective Risks at Home in Robotic Observations by Using a Brain-Inspired Model. In: Neural Information Processing: 20th International Conference, ICONIP 2013, Daegu, Korea, November 3-7, 2013. Proceedings, Part III. Lee M, Hirose A, Hou Z-G, Kil RM (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 33–40 (2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Management.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Species of Hammerhead Shark Confirmed [Internet]. IFLScience (2013). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Improved Controls Needed To Prevent Unauthorized Access at Key Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson S. Individual sense of efficacy, collective teacher efficacy and student achievement in high achieving and low achieving urban public schools. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Awash in an Olympics Afterglow, but Still Remote. New York Times, TR7 (2014).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Management
AbbreviationDiabetes Manag. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)1758-1907
ISSN (online)1758-1915

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