How to format your references using the Diabetes Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cebrian J. ECOLOGY. Energy flows in ecosystems. Science. 349(6252), 1053–1054 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Shenoy SK, Rockman HA. Cardiovascular biology: heart fails without pump partner. Nature. 477(7366), 546–547 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies PCW, Davis TM, Lineweaver CH. Black holes constrain varying constants. Nature. 418(6898), 602–603 (2002).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Menand B, Yi K, Jouannic S, et al. An ancient mechanism controls the development of cells with a rooting function in land plants. Science. 316(5830), 1477–1480 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewis RJ Sr. Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Meško G, Dimitrijević D, Fields CB, editors. Understanding and Managing Threats to the Environment in South Eastern Europe. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Press F, Smith PM. Science and Technology in the Carter Presidency. In: Presidential Science Advisors: Perspectives and Reflections on Science, Policy and Politics. Pielke R, Klein RA (Eds.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 37–56 (2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Management.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Neil deGrasse Tyson Says He’ll Only Go To Mars If Elon Musk Sends His Mom First [Internet]. IFLScience (2017). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 12. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson B. Forging a New World Nationalism: Ancient Mexico in United States art and visual culture, 1933–1945. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Gives Employees Broader Protection Against Retaliation in Workplace. New York Times, A22 (2006).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Management
AbbreviationDiabetes Manag. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)1758-1907
ISSN (online)1758-1915

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