How to format your references using the Diabetes Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riordan M. The suspense of strangeness. Nature. 409(6819), 457 (2001).
A journal article with 2 authors
Raser JM, O’Shea EK. Noise in gene expression: origins, consequences, and control. Science. 309(5743), 2010–2013 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
Behrens TEJ, Hunt LT, Rushworth MFS. The computation of social behavior. Science. 324(5931), 1160–1164 (2009).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Minna JD, Gazdar AF, Sprang SR, Herz J. Cancer. A bull’s eye for targeted lung cancer therapy. Science. 304(5676), 1458–1461 (2004).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dos Santos EC Jr, Cabral da Silva ER. ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shepard R, Pitzer RM, Dunning T, editors. Isaiah Shavitt: A Memorial Festschrift from Theoretical Chemistry Accounts. 1st ed. 2016. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Schumacher N, Mook S-C, Shimanovich I, Zillikens D, Schmidt E. Life-Threatening Pemphigus Vulgaris. In: Clinical Cases in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases. Murrell DF (Ed.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 35–43 (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Management.

Blog post
Hale T. Court Drops Charges Against Cecil The Lion Hunter [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Misuse by the Sigma Corporation, a NASA Contractor. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin EM. Individual Doubles: A Look at Twinship and Attachment Theory. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman J. Police Issue Fewer Tickets for Minor Offenses Such as Public Urination. New York Times, A19 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Management
AbbreviationDiabetes Manag. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)1758-1907
ISSN (online)1758-1915

Other styles