How to format your references using the Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGowan, Kat. 2011. “Masterclass: The Gathering Brainstorm.” Nature 478 (7368): S19-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guydosh, Nicholas R., and Steven M. Block. 2009. “Direct Observation of the Binding State of the Kinesin Head to the Microtubule.” Nature 461 (7260): 125–128.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenier, M. B., D. B. McDonald, and S. W. Buskirk. 2007. “Rapid Population Growth of a Critically Endangered Carnivore.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5839): 779.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Winkler, Paul M., Gerhard Steiner, Aron Vrtala, Hanna Vehkamäki, Madis Noppel, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Georg P. Reischl, Paul E. Wagner, and Markku Kulmala. 2008. “Heterogeneous Nucleation Experiments Bridging the Scale from Molecular Ion Clusters to Nanoparticles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5868): 1374–1377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brigo, Damiano, Massimo Morini, and Andrea Pallavicini. 2013. Counterparty Credit Risk, Collateral and Funding. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
von Davier, Matthias, Eugenio Gonzalez, Irwin Kirsch, and Kentaro Yamamoto, eds. 2013. The Role of International Large-Scale Assessments: Perspectives from Technology, Economy, and Educational Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Aggarwal, Charu C. 2009. “Graphical Models for Uncertain Data.” In Managing and Mining Uncertain Data, edited by Charu C. Aggarwal, 1–36. Advances in Database Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “Why Is The Norovirus Such A Huge Problem For The NHS?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Progress of the Global Hawk Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration. NSIAD-00-78. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chow, Brian Justin. 2016. “Forming Infrastructural Materials by Mechanical Compaction of Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulants.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2003. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Soldier Kills 4 Comrades, Then Himself.” New York Times, February 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McGowan 2011).
This sentence cites two references (McGowan 2011; Guydosh and Block 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guydosh and Block 2009)
  • Three authors: (Grenier, McDonald, and Buskirk 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Winkler et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCompare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
ISSN (print)0305-7925
ISSN (online)1469-3623

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