How to format your references using the Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeHaan, Robert L. 2011. “Science Education. Teaching Creative Science Thinking.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6062): 1499–1500.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T., and Mervyn J. Bibb. 2014. “Use of the Meganuclease I-SceI of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae to Select for Gene Deletions in Actinomycetes.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7100.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakada, Daisuke, Thomas L. Saunders, and Sean J. Morrison. 2010. “Lkb1 Regulates Cell Cycle and Energy Metabolism in Haematopoietic Stem Cells.” Nature 468 (7324): 653–658.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dupont, Erwan, Ileana L. Hanganu, Werner Kilb, Silke Hirsch, and Heiko J. Luhmann. 2006. “Rapid Developmental Switch in the Mechanisms Driving Early Cortical Columnar Networks.” Nature 439 (7072): 79–83.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belmont, David P. 2011. Managing Hedge Fund Risk and Financing. 1 Fusionopolis Walk, #07-01, Solaris South Tower, Singapore 138628: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Dixon, Geoffrey R., and David E. Aldous, eds. 2014. Horticulture: Plants for People and Places, Volume 1: Production Horticulture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Chor, Julie, Ashley Dyer, and Bryna Harwood. 2011. “Access to Family Planning and Induced Abortion.” In Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive and Perinatal Outcomes: The Evidence from Population-Based Interventions, edited by Arden Handler, Joan Kennelly, and Nadine Peacock, 39–63. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Giant Dinosaurs’ Arrival In Australia Suggests A Period Of Antarctic Warming.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Third Party Funding Agreements: No Longer Appropriate for Serving the Handicapped Through the Vocational Rehabilitation Program. HRD-78-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortega, Sandra de. 2006. “The Impact of Outcome Measurement on Non-Profit Organizations: A Case Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt, Eric. 2017. “U.S. Says Its ISIS Fight Isn’t Raising Civilian Risks.” New York Times, May 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeHaan 2011).
This sentence cites two references (DeHaan 2011; Fernández-Martínez and Bibb 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fernández-Martínez and Bibb 2014)
  • Three authors: (Nakada, Saunders, and Morrison 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dupont et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCompare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
ISSN (print)0305-7925
ISSN (online)1469-3623

Other styles