How to format your references using the Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmgren, Arne. 2008. “Biochemistry. SNO Removal.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5879): 1019–1020.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoshida, Naohiro, and Jota Kanda. 2012. “Geochemistry. Tracking the Fukushima Radionuclides.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6085): 1115–1116.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basch, Martín L., Marianne Bronner-Fraser, and Martín I. García-Castro. 2006. “Specification of the Neural Crest Occurs during Gastrulation and Requires Pax7.” Nature 441 (7090): 218–222.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, Yuanhao, Qiwen Pan, Guanqi Chai, Minru Liang, Guoping Dong, Qinyuan Zhang, and Jianrong Qiu. 2013. “Synthesis and Luminescence Mechanism of Multicolor-Emitting g-C3N4 Nanopowders by Low Temperature Thermal Condensation of Melamine.” Scientific Reports 3: 1943.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pascoe, Norman. 2011. Reliability Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Deng, Zhidong, and Hongbo Li, eds. 2015. Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference: Intelligent Information Processing. Vol. 336. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Provencher, Matthew T., Rachel F. Frank, Daniel J. Gross, and Petar Golijanin. 2015. “Glenoid.” In Normal and Pathological Anatomy of the Shoulder, edited by Gregory I. Bain, Eiji Itoi, Giovanni Di Giacomo, and Hiroyuki Sugaya, 35–45. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Ten Deadly Carcinogens (You’ve Probably Never Heard Of).” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Education and Employment Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1995-96. IAP-95-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, Heather A. 2017. “Virtual Mate Poaching: A Study of the Tactics Used to Poach a Potential Mate on Social Networking Sites.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Torre’s Gift to All Fathers: Frank Talk About Prostate Cancer.” New York Times, May 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmgren 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Holmgren 2008; Yoshida and Kanda 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yoshida and Kanda 2012)
  • Three authors: (Basch, Bronner-Fraser, and García-Castro 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCompare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
ISSN (print)0305-7925
ISSN (online)1469-3623

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