How to format your references using the Developmental and Comparative Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Developmental and Comparative Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cisne, J.L., 2005. How science survived: medieval manuscripts’ “demography” and classic texts’ extinction. Science 307, 1305–1307.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aeppli, G., Soh, Y.A., 2001. Physics Quantum criticality in a clean metal. Science 294, 315–316.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Y., Zhang, X., Cao, D., 2013. The role of shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions. Sci. Rep. 3, 3271.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gong, B., Zhao, X., Pan, Z., Li, S., Wang, X., Zhao, Y., Luo, C., 2014. A visible metamaterial fabricated by self-assembly method. Sci. Rep. 4, 4713.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro, M., 2010. Nano-Age. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Theron, L.C., Liebenberg, L., Ungar, M. (Eds.), 2015. Youth Resilience and Culture: Commonalities and Complexities, Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Cullmann, J., Schmitz, G.H., 2011. Design of Artificial Neural Networks for Flood Forecasting, in: Schumann, A.H. (Ed.), Flood Risk Assessment and Management: How to Specify Hydrological Loads, Their Consequences and Uncertainties. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 77–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Developmental and Comparative Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. What Happens When People With Autism Grow Old? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Battlefield Automation: Better Justification and Testing Needed for Common Computer Acquisition (No. IMTEC-88-12). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phelps-Hillen, J.L., 2017. Institutional Review Boards and Writing Studies Research: A Justice-Oriented Study (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker, J., 2016. Dear Diary (Volume 1 of 148). New York Times BR23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cisne, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Aeppli and Soh, 2001; Cisne, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aeppli and Soh, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gong et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
AbbreviationDev. Comp. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0145-305X
ScopeDevelopmental Biology

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