How to format your references using the Developmental and Comparative Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Developmental and Comparative Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van Meer, G., 2002. Cell biology. The different hues of lipid rafts. Science 296, 855–857.
A journal article with 2 authors
Derse, D., Heidecker, G., 2003. Virology. Forced entry--or does HTLV-I have the key? Science 299, 1670–1671.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sarrazin, A.F., Peel, A.D., Averof, M., 2012. A segmentation clock with two-segment periodicity in insects. Science 336, 338–341.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dayan, B., Parkins, A.S., Aoki, T., Ostby, E.P., Vahala, K.J., Kimble, H.J., 2008. A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom. Science 319, 1062–1065.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, D.F., Malone, S.W., 2008. Macrofinancial Risk Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Tannier, E. (Ed.), 2010. Comparative Genomics: International Workshop, RECOMB-CG 2010, Ottawa, Canada, October 9-11, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrari, A., Fantechi, A., Gnesi, S., 2012. Lessons Learnt from the Adoption of Formal Model-Based Development, in: Goodloe, A.E., Person, S. (Eds.), NASA Formal Methods: 4th International Symposium, NFM 2012, Norfolk, VA, USA, April 3-5, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 24–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Developmental and Comparative Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Milky Way galaxy likely formed inside out [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Attack Warning: ADP and Communication Modernization Programs for Warning and Assessment (No. IMTEC-87-23FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, E.I., 2009. Caregiver wellness: An inquiry of health risks among frontline direct caregivers of the elderly and disabled (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., Cooper, M., 2011. Illinois Pension Bonds to Test Investors’ Faith. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van Meer, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Derse and Heidecker, 2003; van Meer, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Derse and Heidecker, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Dayan et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
AbbreviationDev. Comp. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0145-305X
ScopeDevelopmental Biology

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