How to format your references using the Developmental and Comparative Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Developmental and Comparative Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woof, J.M., 2005. Immunology. Tipping the scales toward more effective antibodies. Science 310, 1442–1443.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aldecoa, R., Marín, I., 2013. Surprise maximization reveals the community structure of complex networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 1060.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lackner, L.L., Horner, J.S., Nunnari, J., 2009. Mechanistic analysis of a dynamin effector. Science 325, 874–877.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Becks, L., Hilker, F.M., Malchow, H., Jürgens, K., Arndt, H., 2005. Experimental demonstration of chaos in a microbial food web. Nature 435, 1226–1229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nagashima, Y., 2013. Elementary Particle Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Barceló, J. (Ed.), 2010. Fundamentals of Traffic Simulation, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Z., Li, X., 2016. Quantification of Spike-LFP Synchronization, in: Li, X. (Ed.), Signal Processing in Neuroscience. Springer, Singapore, pp. 57–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Developmental and Comparative Immunology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Humans Killed Almost Three Million Whales During 20th Century [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. FAA Evacuation Standards (No. RCED-93-165R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kratchman, J., 2017. Predicting Chronic Non-Cancer Toxicity Levels from Short-Term Toxicity Data (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2000. One Drugstore Too Many, One Grocery Too Few? New York Times 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Woof, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Aldecoa and Marín, 2013; Woof, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aldecoa and Marín, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Becks et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
AbbreviationDev. Comp. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0145-305X
ScopeDevelopmental Biology

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