How to format your references using the Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill WG. Genetics. A century of corn selection. Science. 2005;307(5710):683-684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matouschek A, Finley D. Cell biology. An ancient portal to proteolysis. Science. 2012;337(6096):813-814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qin Y, Wang X, Wang ZL. Microfibre-nanowire hybrid structure for energy scavenging. Nature. 2008;451(7180):809-813.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Goto-Inoue N, Yamada K, Inagaki A, et al. Lipidomics analysis revealed the phospholipid compositional changes in muscle by chronic exercise and high-fat diet. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Performing Effective Pre-Startup Safety Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Nakamaki H, Hioki K, Mitsui I, Takeuchi Y, eds. Enterprise as an Instrument of Civilization: An Anthropological Approach to Business Administration. Vol 4. 1st ed. 2016. Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Daepp U, Gorkin P. Set Notation and Quantifiers. In: Gorkin P, ed. Reading, Writing, and Proving: A Closer Look at Mathematics. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. Springer; 2011:33-46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. We Need To Know The Algorithms The Government Uses To Make Important Decisions About Us. IFLScience. Published May 28, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Large Programs May Consume Increasing Share of Limited Future Budgets. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lambert M. Generational Differences in the Workplace: The Perspectives of Three Generations on Career Mobility. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. Your Dog Remembers More Than You Think. New York Times. November 23, 2016:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Facial Plastic Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Facial Plast. Surg.
ISSN (print)1521-2491
ISSN (online)1538-3660
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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