How to format your references using the Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vahala KJ. Optical microcavities. Nature. 2003;424(6950):839-846.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waterhouse PM, Fusaro AF. Plant science. Viruses face a double defense by plant small RNAs. Science. 2006;313(5783):54-55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ginsberg MR, Rubin RA, Natowicz MR. Patterning of regional gene expression in autism: new complexity. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1831.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang W, Wang Y, Lee OO, et al. Adaptation of intertidal biofilm communities is driven by metal ion and oxidative stresses. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mather PM, Koch M. Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensed Images. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Sappa AD. Multimodal Interaction in Image and Video Applications. Vol 48. (Vitrià J, ed.). Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu T, Lu A, Zhu X, et al. Effect of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome on the Expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in Rats. In: Wu Y, ed. Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 2. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer; 2012:33-39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch Diver Fend Off Sea Lion Attack. IFLScience. Published November 12, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Visibility and Leadership: The Changing Federal Role in Education. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards K. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Narratives: Personalization of Delivery via Brief Experimental Analysis. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Settlement Money Patched Nassau County Budget Gaps. New York Times. May 4, 2012:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Facial Plastic Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Facial Plast. Surg.
ISSN (print)1521-2491
ISSN (online)1538-3660
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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