How to format your references using the Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wileman T. Aggresomes and autophagy generate sites for virus replication. Science. 2006;312(5775):875-878.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holme P, Liljeros F. Birth and death of links control disease spreading in empirical contact networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4999.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hahnloser RHR, Kozhevnikov AA, Fee MS. An ultra-sparse code underlies the generation of neural sequences in a songbird. Nature. 2002;419(6902):65-70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka H, Homma K, Iwane AH, et al. The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V. Nature. 2002;415(6868):192-195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ippolito LJ Jr. Satellite Communications Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Tucker A, Höppner F, Siebes A, Swift S, eds. Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis XII: 12th International Symposium, IDA 2013, London, UK, October 17-19, 2013. Proceedings. Vol 8207. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Paulino N, Garção AS, Goes J. Digitally Programmable Delay. In: Garção AS, Goes J, eds. Low Power Uwb Cmos Radar Sensors. Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Springer Netherlands; 2008:115-166.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery.

Blog post
Davis J. Researchers Discover Mechanism That Drives Going To Sleep And Waking Up. IFLScience. Published August 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Best Management Practices: Reengineering the Air Force’s Logistics System Can Yield Substantial Savings. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins JW. An Examination of Chronic Absenteeism as Related to Performance on End-of-Year Missouri State Assessments. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mallozzi VM. She’s 98. He’s 94. They Met at the Gym. New York Times. August 11, 2017:ST10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Facial Plastic Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Facial Plast. Surg.
ISSN (print)1521-2491
ISSN (online)1538-3660
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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