How to format your references using the Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garrett BC. Chemistry. Ions at the air/water interface. Science. 2004 Feb 20;303(5661):1146–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacMillan T, Benton TG. Agriculture: Engage farmers in research. Nature. 2014 May 1;509(7498):25–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Z, Szolnoki A, Perc M. Interdependent network reciprocity in evolutionary games. Sci Rep. 2013 Jan 31;3:1183.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tschauner O, Huang S, Greenberg E, Prakapenka VB, Ma C, Rossman GR, et al. Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle. Science. 2018 Mar 9;359(6380):1136–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherrie JW, Howie RM, Semple S. Monitoring for Health Hazards at Work. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Boehncke WH, Radeke HH, editors. Biologics in General Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. XVIII, 190 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Sundararajan V, Wright P. CyberCut: A Coordinated Pipeline of Design, Process Planning and Manufacture. In: Wang L, Shen W, editors. Process Planning and Scheduling for Distributed Manufacturing. London: Springer; 2007. p. 91–108. (Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

Blog post
Andrew E. A Christmas Comet To Be Seen From Dark Skies [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Issues Related to Local Telephone Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Aug. Report No.: RCED-00-237.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ji JH. Near-field characteristics of wall jets with tabs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fisher L. QUOTATION OF THE DAY. New York Times. 2008 Feb 17;A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
AbbreviationAnn. R. Coll. Surg. Engl.
ISSN (print)0035-8843
ISSN (online)1478-7083
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles