How to format your references using the Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garber K. Science careers. Translational institute unites unlikely partners at Penn. Science. 2007 Aug 17;317(5840):968–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bonnell IA, Rice WKM. Star formation around supermassive black holes. Science. 2008 Aug 22;321(5892):1060–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yonezawa H, Aoki T, Furusawa A. Demonstration of a quantum teleportation network for continuous variables. Nature. 2004 Sep 23;431(7007):430–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lallement R, Quémerais E, Bertaux JL, Ferron S, Koutroumpa D, Pellinen R. Deflection of the interstellar neutral hydrogen flow across the heliospheric interface. Science. 2005 Mar 4;307(5714):1447–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Billington DP. Der Turm und die Brücke. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2013.
An edited book
Evans B, Horton J, Skelton T, editors. Play and Recreation, Health and Wellbeing. Singapore: Springer; 2016. 41 illus., 37 illus. in color. eReference. (Geographies of Children and Young People; vol. 9).
A chapter in an edited book
Cornes R, Sato T. Existence and Uniqueness of Nash Equilibrium in Aggregative Games: An Expository Treatment. In: von Mouche P, Quartieri F, editors. Equilibrium Theory for Cournot Oligopolies and Related Games: Essays in Honour of Koji Okuguchi. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 47–61. (Springer Series in Game Theory).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

Blog post
Andrew D. This Single Image Contains 6 Celestial Phenomena. How Many Can You Name? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Request for Assistance on Allegations From K. R. Higgins Concerning Planning Research Corporation’s Contract at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Apr. Report No.: LCD-77-345.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis K. Manifesting archetypal energy through music [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Rodriguez Stands Alone, and That’s a Good Thing. New York Times. 2010 Feb 26;B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
AbbreviationAnn. R. Coll. Surg. Engl.
ISSN (print)0035-8843
ISSN (online)1478-7083
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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