How to format your references using the Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pawar S. Ecology. Why are plant-pollinator networks nested? Science. 2014 Jul 25;345(6195):383.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knudsen BM, Andersen SB. Geophysics. Longitudinal variation in springtime ozone trends. Nature. 2001 Oct 18;413(6857):699–700.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu DL, Chan B, Bush JWM. The hydrodynamics of water strider locomotion. Nature. 2003 Aug 7;424(6949):663–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brennecke J, Malone CD, Aravin AA, Sachidanandam R, Stark A, Hannon GJ. An epigenetic role for maternally inherited piRNAs in transposon silencing. Science. 2008 Nov 28;322(5906):1387–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kang S. Micro/Nano Replication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Grazioli L, Olivetti L, editors. Imaging of Urogenital Diseases: A Color Atlas. Milano: Springer; 2009. XVIII, 496 p. 988 illus., 104 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Bottrighi A, Leonardi G, Montani S, Portinale L, Terenziani P. Intelligent Data Interpretation and Case Base Exploration through Temporal Abstractions. In: Bichindaritz I, Montani S, editors. Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development: 18th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, ICCBR 2010, Alessandria, Italy, July 19-22, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 36–50. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

Blog post
Fang J. Did Fearlessness Lead To Chicken Domestication? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Educational Achievement Standards: NAGB’s Approach Yields Misleading Interpretations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Jun. Report No.: PEMD-93-12.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Egan GC. Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Lee L. Keeping Her Eyes On the Floor. New York Times. 2013 Apr 3;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
AbbreviationAnn. R. Coll. Surg. Engl.
ISSN (print)0035-8843
ISSN (online)1478-7083
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles