How to format your references using the World Journal of Surgical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Surgical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Langer R. Drug delivery. Drugs on target. Science. 2001;293:58–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Parker AR, Lawrence CR. Water capture by a desert beetle. Nature. 2001;414:33–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Maurer SM, Hugenholtz PB, Onsrud HJ. Intellectual property. Europe’s database experiment. Science. 2001;294:789–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Levy JS, Fountain AG, Dickson JL, Head JW, Okal M, Marchant DR, et al. Accelerated thermokarst formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pasher E, Ronen T. The Complete Guide to Knowledge Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Sackmann R. Coping with Demographic Change: A Comparative View on Education and Local Government in Germany and Poland. Bartl W, Jonda B, Kopycka K, Rademacher C, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Davidsson P, Ramstedt L, Törnquist J. Inter-Organization Interoperability in Transport Chains Using Adapters Based on Open Source Freeware. In: Konstantas D, Bourrières J-P, Léonard M, Boudjlida N, editors. Interoperability of Enterprise Software and Applications. London: Springer; 2006. p. 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Surgical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Differences Between Men And Women Are More Than The Sum Of Their Genes. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Community Colleges: New Federal Research Center May Enhance Current Understanding of Developmental Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Sep. Report No.: GAO-13-656.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hofmann TB. Adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia: A comparison of quality of life issues for those receiving Botox treatment [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Bray C. Payments Firm In Britain Draws 2 Bids For Takeover. New York Times. 2017 Jul 4;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Surgical Oncology
AbbreviationWorld J. Surg. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1477-7819

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