How to format your references using the World Journal of Surgical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Surgical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kupferschmidt K. Global health. Report prescribes strong medicine for WHO. Science. 2015;349:223–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Stumpf MPH, Porter MA. Mathematics. Critical truths about power laws. Science. 2012;335:665–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lenton TM, Schellnhuber HJ, Szathmáry E. Climbing the co-evolution ladder. Nature. 2004;431:913.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Brühl CA, Schmidt T, Pieper S, Alscher A. Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: an underestimated cause of global decline? Sci Rep. 2013;3:1135.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bell S. Lean Enterprise Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Liebenberg E, Collier P, Török ZG, editors. History of Cartography: International Symposium of the ICA, 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Esler M. Sympathetic Neural and Adrenal Medullary Mechanisms in Depression and Panic Disorder. In: Hjemdahl P, Steptoe A, Rosengren A, editors. Stress and Cardiovascular Disease. London: Springer; 2012. p. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Surgical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Lunar Crater Study Demonstrates Crowdsourcing is Effective [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Activities Underway to Improve Teacher Training, but Reporting on These Activities Could Be Enhanced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Dec. Report No.: GAO-03-6.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Leonard Puppa EL. Duration of case management: Correlation with Medicaid pediatric patient outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. Neighbors Protest Flea Market’s Move to Belmont Park. New York Times. 2007 Jan 7;14NJ7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Surgical Oncology
AbbreviationWorld J. Surg. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1477-7819

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