How to format your references using the World Journal of Surgical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Surgical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Basu S. Astronomy. Brown-dwarf origins. Science. 2012;337:43–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Corfe IJ, Butler RJ. Comment on “A well-preserved Archaeopteryx specimen with theropod features.” Science. 2006;313:1238; author reply 1238.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Benton R, Vannice KS, Vosshall LB. An essential role for a CD36-related receptor in pheromone detection in Drosophila. Nature. 2007;450:289–93.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dejean A, Solano PJ, Ayroles J, Corbara B, Orivel J. Insect behaviour: arboreal ants build traps to capture prey. Nature. 2005;434:973.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Robson Wright M. An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Reinhardt D, Saunders R, Burry J, editors. Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cliffe O, De Vos M, Padget J. Answer Set Programming for Representing and Reasoning About Virtual Institutions. In: Inoue K, Satoh K, Toni F, editors. Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 7th International Workshop, CLIMA VII, Hakodate, Japan, May 8-9, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 60–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Surgical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Davis J. People Living Near Busy Roads Found To Have Higher Rates Of Dementia. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Early Progress Made in Implementing Strategic and Business Plan, but Obstacles Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: T-RCED-95-227.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Adams CA. Impact of water management and agronomic practices on the performance of insecticide seed treatments against rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, in Mississippi rice [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hiked TFP, Contributed to This Article:, Beedy J, Cooley AP, Dickinson B, Dickinson J, et al. BLISTERS AND BLISS ON A FROSTY BEACH. New York Times. 1985 Mar 31;11LI28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Surgical Oncology
AbbreviationWorld J. Surg. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1477-7819

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