How to format your references using the World Journal of Surgical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Surgical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Davis RJ. Cell biology. A scaffold switch to insulate. Science. 2012;337:1178–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ostfeld RS, Keesing F. Ecology. Oh the locusts sang, then they dropped dead. Science. 2004;306:1488–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Niemeier D, Gombachika H, Richards-Kortum R. How to transform the practice of engineering to meet global health needs. Science. 2014;345:1287–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Seidenbecher T, Laxmi TR, Stork O, Pape H-C. Amygdalar and hippocampal theta rhythm synchronization during fear memory retrieval. Science. 2003;301:846–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bonneau D, Fatu A, Souchet D. Thermo-Hydrodynamic Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Pahl-Wostl C, Kabat P, Möltgen J, editors. Adaptive and Integrated Water Management: Coping with Complexity and Uncertainty. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Salem MB, Hershkop S, Stolfo SJ. A Survey of Insider Attack Detection Research. In: Stolfo SJ, Bellovin SM, Keromytis AD, Hershkop S, Smith SW, Sinclair S, editors. Insider Attack and Cyber Security: Beyond the Hacker. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 69–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Surgical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. NASA Picks Groin Airlock As Winner Of Space Poop Competition. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. General Aviation: Status of the Industry, Related Infrastructure, and Safety Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Aug. Report No.: GAO-01-916.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Terry EJ. In search of leadership: A look at women presidents in Georgia’s two-year colleges and technical colleges [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodara S. Where Medieval Armor Meets the Aquatic. New York Times. 2013 Sep 22;WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Surgical Oncology
AbbreviationWorld J. Surg. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1477-7819

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