How to format your references using the Designs, Codes and Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Designs, Codes and Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeFelice, L.J.: Going against the flow. Nature. 432, 279 (2004)
A journal article with 2 authors
Maynard, A., Rejeski, D.: Too small to overlook. Nature. 460, 174 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Croon, M.B., Hillier, J.K., Sclater, J.G.: Comment on “Mantle flow drives the subsidence of oceanic plates.” Science. 331, 1011; author reply 1011 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bhat-Nakshatri, P., Goswami, C.P., Badve, S., Sledge, G.W., Jr, Nakshatri, H.: Identification of FDA-approved drugs targeting breast cancer stem cells along with biomarkers of sensitivity. Sci. Rep. 3, 2530 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lhabitant, F.-S.: Hedge Funds. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK (2004)
An edited book
Kalia, S., Kaith, B.S., Kaur, I. eds: Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites: Green Chemistry and Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
van Garsse, L.: Has Probation Any Impact in Terms of Reparation to Victims and Communities? Complicating a Simple Question. In: McNeill, F., Durnescu, I., and Butter, R. (eds.) Probation: 12 Essential Questions. pp. 85–105. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Designs, Codes and Cryptography.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Male Worm Brains are Wired to Choose Sex Over Food


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Lessons Learned for Protecting and Educating Children after the Gulf Coast Hurricanes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2006)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward, V.J.: A study of the perceptions of first-year teachers as prepared classroom teachers, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Officers Cleared Of Chechen Deaths, (2005)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesigns, Codes and Cryptography
AbbreviationDes. Codes Cryptogr.
ISSN (print)0925-1022
ISSN (online)1573-7586
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

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