How to format your references using the Designs, Codes and Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Designs, Codes and Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, R.: An end to violence. Nature. 406, 567 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ward, L.D., Kellis, M.: Response to comment on “Evidence of abundant purifying selection in humans for recently acquired regulatory functions.” Science. 340, 682 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Alby, K., Schaefer, D., Bennett, R.J.: Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Nature. 460, 890–893 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sabeti, P.C., Schaffner, S.F., Fry, B., Lohmueller, J., Varilly, P., Shamovsky, O., Palma, A., Mikkelsen, T.S., Altshuler, D., Lander, E.S.: Positive natural selection in the human lineage. Science. 312, 1614–1620 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kothari, V.: Credit Derivatives and Structured Credit Trading. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809 (2008)
An edited book
Cagle, P.T., Allen, T.C., Beasley, M.B., Chirieac, L.R., Dacic, S., Borczuk, A.C., Kerr, K.M. eds: Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer. Springer, New York, NY (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Huang, Z., Leighton, G.: Interferometry for Piezoelectric Materials and Thin Films. In: Cain, M.G. (ed.) Characterisation of Ferroelectric Bulk Materials and Thin Films. pp. 87–113. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Designs, Codes and Cryptography.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: Humans Are Forcing New Species To Appear Through Unnatural Selection,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Social Security Statements: Observations on SSA’s Plans for the Social Security Statement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swartz, H.: The Multitude Speaks in Style: An Analysis of Vernacular Agency through Images of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S.: Soccer at Haverford: More Than a Game, (2002)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesigns, Codes and Cryptography
AbbreviationDes. Codes Cryptogr.
ISSN (print)0925-1022
ISSN (online)1573-7586
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

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