How to format your references using the Designs, Codes and Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Designs, Codes and Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuper, A.: Obituary: Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009). Nature. 462, 862 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu, X., Ruvkun, G.: Cancer. Germ cell genes and cancer. Science. 330, 1761–1762 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Filchak, K.E., Roethele, J.B., Feder, J.L.: Natural selection and sympatric divergence in the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella. Nature. 407, 739–742 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Valleron, A.J., Boelle, P.Y., Will, R., Cesbron, J.Y.: Estimation of epidemic size and incubation time based on age characteristics of vCJD in the United Kingdom. Science. 294, 1726–1728 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwedt, G.: Zuckersüße Chemie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2010)
An edited book
Kurosaki, T., Wienands, J. eds: B Cell Receptor Signaling. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Pelacho, B., Mazo, M., Montori, S., Simon-Yarza, A.M., Gavira, J.J., Blanco-Prieto, M.J., Prósper, F.: Cardiac Regeneration with Stem Cells. In: Baharvand, H. and Aghdami, N. (eds.) Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy. pp. 65–112. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Designs, Codes and Cryptography.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Sitting Infront Of A Light Box Every Morning Increases Male Sexual Satisfaction, Study Says,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: No Child Left Behind Act: Education Needs to Provide Additional Technical Assistance and Conduct Implementation Studies for School Choice Provision. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, C.M.: Is this working? A study on measuring the effectiveness of efforts to diversify the theatre management field, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S.: Cosby Is the Man on Trial. But So Are Power Dynamics, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesigns, Codes and Cryptography
AbbreviationDes. Codes Cryptogr.
ISSN (print)0925-1022
ISSN (online)1573-7586
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

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