How to format your references using the Designs, Codes and Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Designs, Codes and Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roy, D.: Cascaded two-photon nonlinearity in a one-dimensional waveguide with multiple two-level emitters. Sci. Rep. 3, 2337 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bjørnstad, O.N., Grenfell, B.T.: Noisy clockwork: time series analysis of population fluctuations in animals. Science. 293, 638–643 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gächter, S., Renner, E., Sefton, M.: The long-run benefits of punishment. Science. 322, 1510 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lyamin, O., Pryaslova, J., Lance, V., Siegel, J.: Animal behaviour: continuous activity in cetaceans after birth. Nature. 435, 1177 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, B.: Effective Environmental, Health, and Safety Management Using the Team Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Mazzaferri, E.L., Harmer, C., Mallick, U.K., Kendall-Taylor, P. eds: Practical Management of Thyroid Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer, London (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Burchhardt, D.M., Sukari, A.: Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer. In: M. Fribley, A. (ed.) Targeting Oral Cancer. pp. 53–68. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Designs, Codes and Cryptography.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Nearby Star Has Three Planets Slightly Larger Than Earth, With One In Habitable Zone,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Assessment of Testing Vertical Line Array Difar Sonobuoy AN/SS2-77. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1978)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanchez-Mejia, Z.M.: Monsoon dependent ecosystems: Implications of the vertical distribution of soil moisture on land surface-atmosphere interactions, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G.: Graphic Novels Drawn From Comic-Strip Roots, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesigns, Codes and Cryptography
AbbreviationDes. Codes Cryptogr.
ISSN (print)0925-1022
ISSN (online)1573-7586
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

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