How to format your references using the Democratization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Democratization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spinrad, N. “New Ice Age, or Just Cold Feet?” Nature 405, no. 6787 (June 8, 2000): 623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keefer, David K., and Matthew C. Larsen. “Geology. Assessing Landslide Hazards.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316, no. 5828 (May 25, 2007): 1136–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penmatsa, Aravind, Kevin H. Wang, and Eric Gouaux. “X-Ray Structure of Dopamine Transporter Elucidates Antidepressant Mechanism.” Nature 503, no. 7474 (November 7, 2013): 85–90.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Paragi, Z., G. B. Taylor, C. Kouveliotou, J. Granot, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, M. Bietenholz, A. J. van der Horst, et al. “A Mildly Relativistic Radio Jet from the Otherwise Normal Type Ic Supernova 2007gr.” Nature 463, no. 7280 (January 28, 2010): 516–18.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli, Russ J., James M. Waddell, and Tim J. Rahschulte. Program Management for Improved Business Results. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
Donaldson, Alastair, and David Parker, eds. Model Checking Software: 19th International Workshop, SPIN 2012, Oxford, UK, July 23-24, 2012. Proceedings. Vol. 7385. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, Shian-Hua. “Intelligent Internet Information Systems in Knowledge Acquisition: Techniques and Applications.” In Intelligent Knowledge-Based Systems: Business and Technology in the New Millennium, edited by Cornelius T. Leondes, 110–39. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2005.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Democratization.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Smartphone Microscope Diagnoses Parasitic Worm Infection.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 7, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Financial Management: Actions Needed to Ensure Effective Implementation of NASA’s Accounting System.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 21, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Couch, Heather C. “Providers’ Acceptance of Smartphone Applications as a Supportive Strategy for Adolescent Asthma.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. “Still a Fan Favorite.” New York Times, September 1, 2000.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleDemocratization
ISSN (print)1351-0347
ISSN (online)1743-890X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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