How to format your references using the Democratization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Democratization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stern, Peter. “Depression. Defeating the Dementors. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338, no. 6103 (October 5, 2012): 67.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Grady, Michael, and Gregory O’Hare. “Computer Science. How Smart Is Your City?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335, no. 6076 (March 30, 2012): 1581–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merlin, Christine, Robert J. Gegear, and Steven M. Reppert. “Antennal Circadian Clocks Coordinate Sun Compass Orientation in Migratory Monarch Butterflies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325, no. 5948 (September 25, 2009): 1700–1704.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Revankar, Chetana M., Daniel F. Cimino, Larry A. Sklar, Jeffrey B. Arterburn, and Eric R. Prossnitz. “A Transmembrane Intracellular Estrogen Receptor Mediates Rapid Cell Signaling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307, no. 5715 (March 11, 2005): 1625–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruppel, Warren. Wiley GAAP for Governments 2015. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Yadav, Shyam Singh, and Robert Redden, eds. Climate Change and Management of Cool Season Grain Legume Crops. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Falco, I., A. Cioppa, D. Maisto, and E. Tarantino. “Differential Evolution for the Registration of Remotely Sensed Images.” In Soft Computing in Industrial Applications: Recent Trends, edited by Ashraf Saad, Keshav Dahal, Muhammad Sarfraz, and Rajkumar Roy, 40–49. Advances in Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Democratization.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. “Filthy Rich? Insects Prefer To Live In Wealthier Houses Research Says.” IFLScience. IFLScience, September 7, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “The Need for Strong Central Oversight of the Federal Government’s War on Drugs.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 14, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lawrence, Benjamin Haynes. “Evaluation of a Cultural Practice and 2,4-D-Based Herbicide Programs for Glyphosateresistant Palmer Amaranth Management.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, Susan. “Le Pen Shifts A Strategy: Feminizing The Far Right.” New York Times, May 4, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleDemocratization
ISSN (print)1351-0347
ISSN (online)1743-890X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles