How to format your references using the Democratization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Democratization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Field, C. B. “Global Change. Sharing the Garden.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294, no. 5551 (December 21, 2001): 2490–91.
A journal article with 2 authors
Endow, S. A., and H. Higuchi. “A Mutant of the Motor Protein Kinesin That Moves in Both Directions on Microtubules.” Nature 406, no. 6798 (August 24, 2000): 913–16.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shahabi, Alireza, Hailong Wang, and Moneesh Upmanyu. “Shaping van Der Waals Nanoribbons via Torsional Constraints: Scrolls, Folds and Supercoils.” Scientific Reports 4 (November 24, 2014): 7004.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tang, Yan-Jie, Hong-Fu Zhang, Etienne Deloule, Ben-Xun Su, Ji-Feng Ying, M. Santosh, and Yan Xiao. “Abnormal Lithium Isotope Composition from the Ancient Lithospheric Mantle beneath the North China Craton.” Scientific Reports 4 (March 4, 2014): 4274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Warren, Amy Eva Alberts, Richard M. Lerner, and Erin Phelps. Thriving and Spirituality Among Youth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Linte, Cristian A., Elvis C. S. Chen, Marie-Odile Berger, John T. Moore, and David R. Holmes, eds. Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions: 7th International Workshop, AE-CAI 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 7815. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Capelotti, P. J. “Mobile Artifacts in the Solar System and Beyond.” In Archaeology and Heritage of the Human Movement into Space, edited by Beth Laura O’Leary and P. J. Capelotti, 49–59. Space and Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Democratization.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Rare Quadruple Rainbow Spotted In New York.” IFLScience. IFLScience, April 22, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “H.R. 13343, a Bill To Establish a Department of Education, and for Other Purposes.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 3, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, Jenny. “Surviving Childhood Bullying: Impact on Psychosocial Well-Being in Adulthood.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda. “On Infrastructure, Claims That Don’t Quite Get Off the Ground.” New York Times, June 9, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleDemocratization
ISSN (print)1351-0347
ISSN (online)1743-890X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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