How to format your references using the Democratization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Democratization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, Gary A. “Astronomy. Aspects of Our Sun.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322, no. 5901 (October 24, 2008): 535–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cottrell, Elizabeth, and Katherine A. Kelley. “Redox Heterogeneity in Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts as a Function of Mantle Source.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340, no. 6138 (June 14, 2013): 1314–17.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marasco, Addolorata, Alessandro Limongiello, and Michele Migliore. “Using Strahler’s Analysis to Reduce up to 200-Fold the Run Time of Realistic Neuron Models.” Scientific Reports 3 (October 14, 2013): 2934.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Long, Jeff A., Carolyn Ohno, Zachery R. Smith, and Elliot M. Meyerowitz. “TOPLESS Regulates Apical Embryonic Fate in Arabidopsis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312, no. 5779 (June 9, 2006): 1520–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, Peter. The JCT 05 Standard Building Sub-Contract. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Tavares, João Manuel R. S., Xiongbiao Luo, and Shuo Li, eds. Bio-Imaging and Visualization for Patient-Customized Simulations. Vol. 13. Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Klement, Erich P., and Radko Mesiar. “Monotone Measures-Based Integrals.” In Springer Handbook of Computational Intelligence, edited by Janusz Kacprzyk and Witold Pedrycz, 75–88. Habilitation Thesis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Democratization.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. “Young Earth Creationist Ben Carson Could Be America’s New Secretary Of Education.” IFLScience. IFLScience, November 11, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Highway Safety Research and Development--Better Management Can Make It More Useful.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 28, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newsom, Stephanie M. “Love and Creativity: A Shared Dynamic.” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. “Parole Unlikely for Russian Oil Executive Jailed in Siberia.” New York Times, October 26, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleDemocratization
ISSN (print)1351-0347
ISSN (online)1743-890X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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