How to format your references using the Democratization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Democratization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christofori, Gerhard. “New Signals from the Invasive Front.” Nature 441, no. 7092 (May 25, 2006): 444–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kampmann, Martin, and Günter Blobel. “Biochemistry. Nascent Proteins Caught in the Act.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326, no. 5958 (December 4, 2009): 1352–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sherwood, Steven C., John R. Lanzante, and Cathryn L. Meyer. “Radiosonde Daytime Biases and Late-20th Century Warming.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309, no. 5740 (September 2, 2005): 1556–59.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gross, M., D. C. Muller, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. Neher, C. Brauchle, and K. Meerholz. “Improving the Performance of Doped Pi-Conjugated Polymers for Use in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.” Nature 405, no. 6787 (June 8, 2000): 661–65.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth, Michael. Pharmazeutische Mikrobiologie. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012.
An edited book
Duran, Mesut, Margret Höft, Brahim Medjahed, Daniel B. Lawson, and Elsayed A. Orady, eds. STEM Learning: IT Integration and Collaborative Strategies. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Collins, Micheál L., and Mary P. Murphy. “Activation: Solving Unemployment or Supporting a Low-Pay Economy?” In The Irish Welfare State in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Change, edited by Mary P. Murphy and Fiona Dukelow, 67–92. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Democratization.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. “Original Proteins Have Been Extracted From An 80-Million-Year-Old Fossil.” IFLScience. IFLScience, February 1, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “ADP Budget Analysis: SSA’s Information Systems Funding for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 14, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowell, Michael L. “A Case Study into the Perception of World Language Study of All Stakeholders in a Suburban Midwest School District.” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A. L., and James C. McKINLEY Jr. “F.B.I. Agent Checking On Grenade Hurt in Blast.” New York Times, August 16, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleDemocratization
ISSN (print)1351-0347
ISSN (online)1743-890X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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