How to format your references using the Decisions in Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decisions in Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fredrickson, J.K.: ECOLOGY. Ecological communities by design. Science. 348, 1425–1427 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Nodine, M.D., Bartel, D.P.: Maternal and paternal genomes contribute equally to the transcriptome of early plant embryos. Nature. 482, 94–97 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, Q., Krug, R.M., Tao, Y.J.: The mechanism by which influenza A virus nucleoprotein forms oligomers and binds RNA. Nature. 444, 1078–1082 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Horie, S., Robbie, S.J., Liu, J., Wu, W.-K., Ali, R.R., Bainbridge, J.W., Nicholson, L.B., Mochizuki, M., Dick, A.D., Copland, D.A.: CD200R signaling inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression by macrophages and suppresses choroidal neovascularization. Sci. Rep. 3, 3072 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cumming, D.J.: Venture Capital. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Okuno, E.: Biomechanics of the Human Body. Springer, New York, NY (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Oishi, Y.: Mechanisms of Plant Pollutant Uptake as Related to Effective Biomonitoring. In: Kulshrestha, U. and Saxena, P. (eds.) Plant Responses to Air Pollution. pp. 33–44. Springer, Singapore (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decisions in Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Carpineti, C.: This Sponge-Like Material Soaks Up 90x Its Weight In Oil,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Motor Carrier Safety: Federal Safety Agency Identifies Many High-Risk Carriers but Does Not Assess Maximum Fines as Often as Required by Law. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, C.: How Are Nonresident African American Fathers Involved in Their Children’s Academic Success?, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J.: Goodbye, Mr. Medium, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fredrickson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Fredrickson 2015; Nodine and Bartel 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nodine and Bartel 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Horie et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecisions in Economics and Finance
AbbreviationDecis. Econ. Finance
ISSN (print)1593-8883
ISSN (online)1129-6569
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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