How to format your references using the Decisions in Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decisions in Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gomory, R.: Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-2010). Nature. 468, 378 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratcliffe, J.M., Nydam, M.L.: Multimodal warning signals for a multiple predator world. Nature. 455, 96–99 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Roopnarine, P.D., Angielczyk, K.D., Hertog, R.: Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.” Science. 314, 925; author reply 925 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Olsen, B., Munster, V.J., Wallensten, A., Waldenström, J., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., Fouchier, R.A.M.: Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds. Science. 312, 384–388 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shinohara, H., Tagmatarchis, N.: Endohedral Metallofullerenes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Poluektova, L.Y., Garcia, J.V., Koyanagi, Y., Manz, M.G., Tager, A.M. eds: Humanized Mice for HIV Research. Springer, New York, NY (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Kriglstein, S., Brown, R., Wallner, G.: Workflow Patterns as a Means to Model Task Succession in Games: A Preliminary Case Study. In: Pisan, Y., Sgouros, N.M., and Marsh, T. (eds.) Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2014: 13th International Conference, ICEC 2014, Sydney, Australia, October 1-3, 2014. Proceedings. pp. 36–41. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decisions in Economics and Finance.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: Milky Way-Like Galaxies In The Early Universe Suggest It Was Not As Chaotic As We Thought,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Revolving Funds: Additional Pricing and Performance Information for FAA and Treasury Funds Could Enhance Agency Decisions on Shared Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2016)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marulkar, S.: Indoor object localization system, (2016)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Church Hints It May Serve As Mediator In Russia, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gomory 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gomory 2010; Ratcliffe and Nydam 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ratcliffe and Nydam 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Olsen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecisions in Economics and Finance
AbbreviationDecis. Econ. Finance
ISSN (print)1593-8883
ISSN (online)1129-6569
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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