How to format your references using the Decisions in Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decisions in Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Castro Neto, A.H.: Physics. Another spin on graphene. Science. 332, 315–316 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Gottlieb, R.A., Bernstein, D.: METABOLISM. Mitochondria shape cardiac metabolism. Science. 350, 1162–1163 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Werfel, J., Petersen, K., Nagpal, R.: Designing collective behavior in a termite-inspired robot construction team. Science. 343, 754–758 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Seki, A., Coppinger, J.A., Jang, C.-Y., Yates, J.R., Fang, G.: Bora and the kinase Aurora a cooperatively activate the kinase Plk1 and control mitotic entry. Science. 320, 1655–1658 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Obayya, S.: Computational Photonics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2010)
An edited book
Almeida, L., Ji, J., Steinbauer, G., Luke, S. eds: RoboCup 2015: Robot World Cup XIX. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Acha, E.M., Piola, A., Iribarne, O., Mianzan, H.: Comparisons of Fronts with Other Boundaries at Sea. In: Piola, A., Iribarne, O., and Mianzan, H. (eds.) Ecological Processes at Marine Fronts: Oases in the ocean. pp. 41–46. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decisions in Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Moron Shoots Cat With An Arrow In Michigan,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Direct Student Loans: Additional Steps Would Increase Borrowers’ Awareness of Electronic Debiting and Reduce Federal Administrative Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2002)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Decker, K.M.: A study of relationships between counselor education, social justice advocacy competence, and likelihood to advocate, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gimenez, S.: When a Decision Letter Is From Mom’s Alma Mater, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Castro Neto 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Castro Neto 2011; Gottlieb and Bernstein 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gottlieb and Bernstein 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Seki et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecisions in Economics and Finance
AbbreviationDecis. Econ. Finance
ISSN (print)1593-8883
ISSN (online)1129-6569
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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