How to format your references using the Decisions in Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decisions in Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hengartner, M.O.: The biochemistry of apoptosis. Nature. 407, 770–776 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kokko, H., López-Sepulcre, A.: From individual dispersal to species ranges: perspectives for a changing world. Science. 313, 789–791 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bomfleur, B., McLoughlin, S., Vajda, V.: Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns. Science. 343, 1376–1377 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuan, Y.-J., Yu, Z.-T., Liu, X.-J., Cai, J.-G., Guan, Z.-J., Zou, Z.-G.: Hydrogen photogeneration promoted by efficient electron transfer from iridium sensitizers to colloidal MoS2 catalysts. Sci. Rep. 4, 4045 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boxer, H.: Profitable Day and Swing Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Slattery, J.C.: Interfacial Transport Phenomena. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Robeva, R., Kumanov, P.: Physical Changes During Pubertal Transition. In: Kumanov, P. and Agarwal, A. (eds.) Puberty: Physiology and Abnormalities. pp. 39–64. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decisions in Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: New Super Black Material Absorbs 99.965% Of Light,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Mass Transit: Bus Rapid Transit Shows Promise. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2001)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hong, P.K.: Stomach cancer diet education and screening awareness in East Asian American women, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kurutz, S.: The Unsettling Thing About Ellen, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hengartner 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hengartner 2000; Kokko and López-Sepulcre 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kokko and López-Sepulcre 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecisions in Economics and Finance
AbbreviationDecis. Econ. Finance
ISSN (print)1593-8883
ISSN (online)1129-6569
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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