How to format your references using the Decisions in Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decisions in Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Csatho, B.M.: Climate science: A history of Greenland’s ice loss. Nature. 528, 341–343 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinberger, B., Torsvik, T.H.: Absolute plate motions and true polar wander in the absence of hotspot tracks. Nature. 452, 620–623 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Pavlov, P., Svendsen, J.I., Indrelid, S.: Human presence in the European Arctic nearly 40,000 years ago. Nature. 413, 64–67 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Canales, J.P., Nedimović, M.R., Kent, G.M., Carbotte, S.M., Detrick, R.S.: Seismic reflection images of a near-axis melt sill within the lower crust at the Juan de Fuca ridge. Nature. 460, 89–93 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin, W.C.: Wave Propagation in Drilling, Well Logging and Reservoir Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Rojszczak, A.: From the Act of Judging to the Sentence: The Problem of Truth Bearers from Bolzano to Tarski. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Gaur, M.: Genetically Modified Logistic Regression with Radial Basis Function for Robust Software Effort Prediction. In: Singh, R., Vatsa, M., Majumdar, A., and Kumar, A. (eds.) Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing. pp. 55–66. Springer India, New Delhi (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decisions in Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Hubble Captures Image Of Galactic Merger


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Safety: Efforts to Implement Flight Operational Quality Assurance Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fox, R.N.: Interpreting architecture: A Krauszian approach, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mcmasters, K.: The Nuclear Neighborhood, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Csatho 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Csatho 2015; Steinberger and Torsvik 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steinberger and Torsvik 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Canales et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecisions in Economics and Finance
AbbreviationDecis. Econ. Finance
ISSN (print)1593-8883
ISSN (online)1129-6569
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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