How to format your references using the Decisions in Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decisions in Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Downie, J.A.: Plant science. Infectious heresy. Science. 316, 1296–1297 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, T., Wheeler, S.E.: Organic chemistry. Harnessing weak interactions for enantioselective catalysis. Science. 347, 719–720 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bean, J.L., Kempton, E.M.-R., Homeier, D.: A ground-based transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b. Nature. 468, 669–672 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, K., Cole, J., Conger, C., Draskovic, J., Lohr, M., Klein, K., Scheidemantel, T., Schiffer, P.: Granular materials: packing grains by thermal cycling. Nature. 442, 257 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee: Continuous Direct-Heat Rotary Dryers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Alsmeyer, G., Löwe, M. eds: Random Matrices and Iterated Random Functions: Münster, October 2011. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Castellà-Roca, J., Domingo-Ferrer, J., Sebé, F.: A Smart Card-Based Mental Poker System. In: Domingo-Ferrer, J., Posegga, J., and Schreckling, D. (eds.) Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications: 7th IFIP WG 8.8/11.2 International Conference, CARDIS 2006, Tarragona, Spain, April 19-21, 2006. Proceedings. pp. 48–61. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decisions in Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: 10 Bizarre Illnesses That Science Has Yet To Explain


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review of Certain Aspects of the Head Start Program Operated by the Community Education Extension of Mary Holmes College, Jackson, Mississippi. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1974)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pockross, A.F.: Campbell, Turner and dog training in Adam Freeman Pockross’s “Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge,” (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C.: Elaborate Measures Try to Tame Turbulence, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Downie 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Downie 2007; Lu and Wheeler 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu and Wheeler 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecisions in Economics and Finance
AbbreviationDecis. Econ. Finance
ISSN (print)1593-8883
ISSN (online)1129-6569
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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