How to format your references using the Colloids and Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Colloids and Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nossal, G.J. A purgative mastery. Nature 2001, 412, 685–686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watanabe, M.; Kondo, S. Fish pigmentation. Comment on “Local reorganization of xanthophores fine-tunes and colors the striped pattern of zebrafish.” Science 2015, 348, 297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Immerzeel, W.W.; van Beek, L.P.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P. Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science 2010, 328, 1382–1385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M. The Last Glacial Maximum. Science 2009, 325, 710–714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, K.-H. Power Management Techniques for Integrated Circuit Design; John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9781118896846.
An edited book
Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2016; Reinhardt, D., Saunders, R., Burry, J., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319263762.
A chapter in an edited book
Ledermann, J.A.; Raja, F.A. Mucinous Cancers: Ovary. In Rare and Uncommon Gynecological Cancers: A Clinical Guide; Reed, N., Green, J.A., Gershenson, D.M., Siddiqui, N., Connor, R., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 67–73 ISBN 9783642134913.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Colloids and Interfaces.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Rising Seas Bring Heavy Burden To Florida Coastal Economy. Can It Adapt? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Freight Railroads: Updated Information on Rates and Other Industry Trends; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santos, E. Altruism in Psychotherapy: Altruistic Acts as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Rebels Avenge A Leader’s Death. New York Times 2002, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleColloids and Interfaces
ISSN (online)9999-9999

Other styles