How to format your references using the Decision Support Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Support Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Randall, Extra dimensions and warped geometries, Science. 296 (2002) 1422–1427.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Smith, J. Yard, Quantum communication with zero-capacity channels, Science. 321 (2008) 1812–1815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Yang, Y. Dong, N.V. Chawla, Predicting node degree centrality with the node prominence profile, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7236.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.M. Grenon, M. Jeanne, J. Aguado-Zuniga, M.S. Conte, M. Hughes-Fulford, Effects of gravitational mechanical unloading in endothelial cells: association between caveolins, inflammation and adhesion molecules, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1494.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.R. Bacon, Practical Risk-Adjusted Performance Measurement, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
K. Soetaert, Solving Differential Equations in R, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
J.C.H. Chen, H.A. Wu, Aesthetic Creativity: Bridging Arts, Culture, and Education, in: S. Leong, B.W. Leung (Eds.), Creative Arts in Education and Culture: Perspectives from Greater China, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Support Systems.

Blog post
D. Andrew, To Uncover The Secrets Of Exoplanets, Try Listening To Them, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Travel System Requirements, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.L. Olson, Of Hell and High Water: Longitudinal Case Studies of the Internal and External Recovery Efforts of Non-Governmental Organizations after Hurricane Katrina, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Novick, Classy Comfort Food in Relaxed Settings, New York Times. (2014) LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Support Systems
AbbreviationDecis. Support Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-9236
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Management Information Systems
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management
Developmental and Educational Psychology

Other styles