How to format your references using the Decision Support Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Support Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.N. Stewart Jr, Songwriting and science, Science. 349 (2015) 446.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.R. Green, G. Kroemer, The pathophysiology of mitochondrial cell death, Science. 305 (2004) 626–629.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.J. Advani, M. Rajagopalan, P.H. Reddy, Calmodulin-like protein from M. tuberculosis H37Rv is required during infection, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6861.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Bisazza, B. Butterworth, L. Piffer, B. Bahrami, M.E. Miletto Petrazzini, C. Agrillo, Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Oyama, Post-Crisis Risk Management, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809, 2010.
An edited book
G. Kümmel, B. Giegerich, eds., The Armed Forces: Towards a Post-Interventionist Era?, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Y.X. Zhao, S.Y. Wang, L.C. Uria, S.K. Mishra, A Derivative for Semipreinvex Functions and Its Applications in Semipreinvex Programming, in: S.K. Mishra (Ed.), Topics in Nonconvex Optimization: Theory and Applications, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 79–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Support Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Why You Shouldn’t Wrap Your Food In Aluminum Foil Before Cooking It, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on Charging Cellular Telephone Installation to Senate Contingent Fund], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.L. Millar, Re-specting graffiti: Transgression at play in art, language, and ritual, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, Kerber Encounters a Pliskova Test, but Not the Usual One, New York Times. (2017) B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Support Systems
AbbreviationDecis. Support Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-9236
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Management Information Systems
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management
Developmental and Educational Psychology

Other styles