How to format your references using the Decision Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Decision Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savchenko, A. (2009). Materials science. Transforming graphene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5914), 589–590.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miguel, M.-C., & Zapperi, S. (2006). Materials science. Fluctuations in plasticity at the microscale. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5777), 1149–1150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Usdin, M., Guillerm, M., & Chirac, P. (2006). Neglected tests for neglected patients. Nature, 441(7091), 283–284.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hou, Y., Du, X., Scheiner, S., McMeekin, D. P., Wang, Z., Li, N., Killian, M. S., Chen, H., Richter, M., Levchuk, I., Schrenker, N., Spiecker, E., Stubhan, T., Luechinger, N. A., Hirsch, A., Schmuki, P., Steinrück, H.-P., Fink, R. H., Halik, M., Snaith, H. J., & Brabec, C. J. (2017). A generic interface to reduce the efficiency-stability-cost gap of perovskite solar cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 358(6367), 1192–1197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor, W. (2009). Making RTI Work. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Reich, S. (2014). Genericity in Nonlinear Analysis. (A. J. Zaslavski, Ed.) (Vol. 34). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fliss, D. M., & Gil, Z. (2016). The Subcranial Approach to the Anterior Skull Base. In Z. Gil (Ed.), Atlas of Surgical Approaches to Paranasal Sinuses and the Skull Base. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 139–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Decision Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Single-Celled Organism Smashes and Rebuilds Its Own Genome Before Sex Each Time,. IFLScience accessed October 30, 2018, available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Indian Affairs: Key Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Health at Indian School Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, K. C. (2013). Teacher and parent perceptions of classroom experiences of African American male students in a high school alternative program. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). Dominican Players Hone Skills With AidOf Broomsticks. New York Times. October 6, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savchenko, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Miguel & Zapperi, 2006; Savchenko, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miguel & Zapperi, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Usdin, Guillerm, & Chirac, 2006)
  • Four or more authors: (Hou, Du, Scheiner, McMeekin, Wang, Li, Killian, Chen, Richter, Levchuk, Schrenker, Spiecker, Stubhan, Luechinger, Hirsch, Schmuki, Steinrück, Fink, Halik, Snaith, & Brabec, 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleDecision Sciences
ISSN (print)0011-7315
ISSN (online)1540-5915
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
Management of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management
Information Systems and Management

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