How to format your references using the Information Technology for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. (2007). Count on it. Nature, 445(7130), 946–947.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pahlevan, K., & Morbidelli, A. (2015). Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination. Nature, 527(7579), 492–494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rannou, P., Hourdin, F., & McKay, C. P. (2002). A wind origin for Titan’s haze structure. Nature, 418(6900), 853–856.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Janata, P., Birk, J. L., Van Horn, J. D., Leman, M., Tillmann, B., & Bharucha, J. J. (2002). The cortical topography of tonal structures underlying Western music. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5601), 2167–2170.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lloret, J., Shulman, G., & Love, R. M. (2013). Condition and Health Indicators of Exploited Marine Fishes. John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Rieber, R. W. (2014). Film, Television and the Psychology of the Social Dream (R. J. Kelly, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sever, D. (2016). Instructional Tactics. In C. Akdeniz (Ed.), Instructional Process and Concepts in Theory and Practice: Improving the Teaching Process (pp. 233–262). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology for Development.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 16). Wild Orangutan Slaps Guy Trying To Take A Selfie With Him. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Overseas Allowances: Improvements Needed in Administration (NSIAD-90-46). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woods, B. A. (2006). The Perceived Efficacy of an Empowerment Model of Youth Development among Vermont Educational Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2017, March 13). Puerto Rico, Mired in Debt, Approves a Rescue Plan. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin, 2007; Pahlevan & Morbidelli, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pahlevan & Morbidelli, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Rannou et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Janata et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology for Development
AbbreviationInf. Technol. Dev.
ISSN (print)0268-1102
ISSN (online)1554-0170
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Public Administration

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