How to format your references using the Information Technology for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schultz, P. H. (2007). Planetary science. Hidden Mars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5853), 1080–1081.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higley, M. J., & Strittmatter, S. M. (2010). Neuroscience. Lynx for braking plasticity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6008), 1189–1190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buehler, M. J., Abraham, F. F., & Gao, H. (2003). Hyperelasticity governs dynamic fracture at a critical length scale. Nature, 426(6963), 141–146.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rout, C. S., Joshi, P. D., Kashid, R. V., Joag, D. S., More, M. A., Simbeck, A. J., Washington, M., Nayak, S. K., & Late, D. J. (2013). Superior field emission properties of layered WS2-RGO nanocomposites. Scientific Reports, 3, 3282.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chartered Institute of Building. (2014). Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vos, P. D., Garrity, G. M., Jones, D., Krieg, N. R., Ludwig, W., Rainey, F. A., Schleifer, K.-H., & Whitman, W. B. (Eds.). (2009). Bergey’s Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Three The Firmicutes (Second Edition). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Isabelle, A. D., & Valle, N. Z. (2016). Technology. In N. Z. Valle (Ed.), Inspiring STEM Minds: Biographies and Activities for Elementary Classrooms (pp. 87–102). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology for Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 21). Why Are Some Generic Drugs Getting So Expensive? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). School Finance: Trends in U.S. Education Spending (HEHS-95-235). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez, S. (2012). Support group for caregivers coping with their child diagnosed with autism: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt, E. (2017, October 1). Vast Exercise Demonstrated Russia’s Growing Military Prowess. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schultz, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Higley & Strittmatter, 2010; Schultz, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Higley & Strittmatter, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Buehler et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rout et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology for Development
AbbreviationInf. Technol. Dev.
ISSN (print)0268-1102
ISSN (online)1554-0170
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Public Administration

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