How to format your references using the Information Technology for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carroll, S. M. (2006). Is our Universe natural? Nature, 440(7088), 1132–1136.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramos, S. B. V., & Laederach, A. (2014). Molecular biology: A second layer of information in RNA. Nature, 505(7485), 621–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, P.-Y., Weng, J., & Anderson, R. G. W. (2005). OSBP is a cholesterol-regulated scaffolding protein in control of ERK 1/2 activation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5714), 1472–1476.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chamberlain, N. L., Hill, R. I., Kapan, D. D., Gilbert, L. E., & Kronforst, M. R. (2009). Polymorphic butterfly reveals the missing link in ecological speciation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5954), 847–850.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni, L., & Perdomo, I. (2013). Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Nagel, E., & Lauerer, M. (Eds.). (2016). Prioritization in Medicine: An International Dialogue (1st ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Yairi, I. E., Kayama, K., & Igi, S. (2007). Robotic Communication Terminals as a Ubiquitous System for Improving Human Mobility by Making Environment Virtually Barrier-Free. In A. Sakurai, K. Hasida, & K. Nitta (Eds.), New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: JSAI 2003 and JSAI 2004 Conferences and Workshops, Niigata, Japan, June 23-27, 2003 and Kanazawa, Japan, May 31 - June 4, 2004, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 61–75). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology for Development.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, January 11). How To Talk To Your Dog – According To Science. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). A Long-Term Plan Is Needed To Guide DOE and Multiprogram Laboratory Research and Development Activities (RCED-84-30). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Llerena, K. (2010). The social behaviors and emotional characteristics of individuals elevated on social anhedonia [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, October 23). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton, on Tour of Western States, Chides G.O.P. for Investigating His Mother. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carroll, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Carroll, 2006; Ramos & Laederach, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramos & Laederach, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Wang et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chamberlain et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology for Development
AbbreviationInf. Technol. Dev.
ISSN (print)0268-1102
ISSN (online)1554-0170
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Public Administration

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