How to format your references using the Information Technology for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gille, S. T. (2002). Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950s. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5558), 1275–1277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, C. R., & Siwy, Z. S. (2007). Chemistry. Learning nature’s way: biosensing with synthetic nanopores. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5836), 331–332.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hampshire, A., MacDonald, A., & Owen, A. M. (2013). Hypoconnectivity and hyperfrontality in retired American football players. Scientific Reports, 3, 2972.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Long, H., Shi, T., Hu, H., Jiang, S., Xi, S., & Tang, Z. (2014). Growth of hierarchal mesoporous NiO nanosheets on carbon cloth as binder-free anodes for high-performance flexible lithium-ion batteries. Scientific Reports, 4, 7413.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1998). Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bristow, J., & McDonagh, J. (Eds.). (2016). Nineteenth-Century Radical Traditions. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Nyporko, A. Y. (2014). DNA Dependent DNA Polymerases as Targets for Low-Weight Molecular Inhibitors: State of Art and Prospects of Rational Design. In L. Gorb, V. Kuz’min, & E. Muratov (Eds.), Application of Computational Techniques in Pharmacy and Medicine (pp. 95–135). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology for Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 1). Rats Recognize Expressions Of Pain. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Electronic Government: Agencies Face Challenges in Implementing New Federal Employee Identification Standard (GAO-06-178). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, W. B. (2017). First-Generation Undergraduate Researchers: Engaging and Validating Cultural Wealth-Based Self-Authors [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2008, May 31). Investors in Russian Gas Venture Clash. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gille, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gille, 2002; Martin & Siwy, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin & Siwy, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Hampshire et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Long et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology for Development
AbbreviationInf. Technol. Dev.
ISSN (print)0268-1102
ISSN (online)1554-0170
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Public Administration

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