How to format your references using the Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dye, Christopher. 2008. “Health and Urban Living.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5864): 766–769.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt, James H., and Gro V. Amdam. 2005. “Bivoltinism as an Antecedent to Eusociality in the Paper Wasp Genus Polistes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5719): 264–267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Michel, Patrick, Willy Benz, and Derek C. Richardson. 2003. “Disruption of Fragmented Parent Bodies as the Origin of Asteroid Families.” Nature 421 (6923): 608–611.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Busza, Ania, Myai Emery-Le, Michael Rosbash, and Patrick Emery. 2004. “Roles of the Two Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME Structural Domains in Circadian Photoreception.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5676): 1503–1506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheng, Vincent S., and Jimmy C. Tong. 2017. Building Sustainability in East Asia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kang, Jungmin, ed. 2013. Assessment of the Nuclear Programs of Iran and North Korea. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Furneaux, Brent. 2012. “Task-Technology Fit Theory: A Survey and Synopsis of the Literature.” In Information Systems Theory: Explaining and Predicting Our Digital Society, Vol. 1, edited by Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Michael R. Wade, and Scott L. Schneberger, 87–106. Integrated Series in Information Systems. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2017. “White House Caught Copying From ExxonMobil Press Release.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Homeland Security: OMB’s Temporary Cessation of Information Technology Funding for New Investments. GAO-03-186T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsieh, David A. 2019. “Informed Technology Adoption Decisions Based on Innovation-Related Factors.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “Hall Quits ‘Today’ and NBC With Kelly Waiting Offstage.” New York Times, February 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dye 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Dye 2008; Hunt and Amdam 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hunt and Amdam 2005)
  • Three authors: (Michel, Benz, and Richardson 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Busza et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe
ISSN (print)0965-156X
ISSN (online)1469-3712
Cultural Studies

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