How to format your references using the Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rabeharisoa, Vololona. 2011. “Genome-Sequencing Anniversary. Socializing Genetic Diseases.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6020): 1026–1027.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clardy, Jon, and Christopher Walsh. 2004. “Lessons from Natural Molecules.” Nature 432 (7019): 829–837.
A journal article with 3 authors
Simiyu, Ken, Abdallah S. Daar, and Peter A. Singer. 2010. “Global Health. Stagnant Health Technologies in Africa.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6010): 1483–1484.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tang, Joel A., Sneha Dugar, Guiming Zhong, Naresh S. Dalal, Jim P. Zheng, Yong Yang, and Riqiang Fu. 2013. “Non-Destructive Monitoring of Charge-Discharge Cycles on Lithium Ion Batteries Using 7Li Stray-Field Imaging.” Scientific Reports 3: 2596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liphard, Klaus G. 2014. Labormanagement. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Amit, Michal, and Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor, eds. 2012. Atlas of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Derivation and Culturing. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
McGrath, Martina M., and Mario F. Rubin. 2012. “Evaluation of Renal Transplant Candidates.” In Core Concepts in Renal Transplantation, edited by Anil Chandraker, Mohamed H. Sayegh, and Ajay K. Singh, 59–83. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2017. “Researcher Confirms The Effectiveness Of Fertility Technique That Led To His Conception.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Rail Transit: Observations on FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program and Potential Change in Oversight Role. GAO-10-293T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wrobleski, Margaret Mary. 2010. “The Challenge of Teen Nutrition: An Ecological View of Socio-Cognitive Influences on Urban, African-American Adolescent Diet Quality.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: A Photo Opportunity; Serendipity or Not, Truck Full of Spuds Becomes a Star.” New York Times, July 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rabeharisoa 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Rabeharisoa 2011; Clardy and Walsh 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clardy and Walsh 2004)
  • Three authors: (Simiyu, Daar, and Singer 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe
ISSN (print)0965-156X
ISSN (online)1469-3712
Cultural Studies

Other styles