How to format your references using the Journal of Marine Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Marine Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J.F., 2001. The beanbag lives on. Nature 409, 771.
A journal article with 2 authors
Margules, C.R., Pressey, R.L., 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405, 243–253.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cardinale, B.J., Palmer, M.A., Collins, S.L., 2002. Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation. Nature 415, 426–429.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Luo, L.-B., Zeng, L.-H., Xie, C., Yu, Y.-Q., Liang, F.-X., Wu, C.-Y., Wang, L., Hu, J.-G., 2014. Light trapping and surface plasmon enhanced high-performance NIR photodetector. Sci. Rep. 4, 3914.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C., 2014. Random Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Rosenberg, R.N. (Ed.), 2009. Atlas of Clinical Neurology, Third Edition. ed. Current Medicine Group, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Bromiley, P.A., Adams, J.E., Cootes, T.F., 2016. Automatic Localisation of Vertebrae in DXA Images Using Random Forest Regression Voting, in: Vrtovec, T., Yao, J., Glocker, B., Klinder, T., Frangi, A., Zheng, G., Li, S. (Eds.), Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging: Third International Workshop and Challenge, CSI 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015, Munich, Germany, October 5, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 38–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Marine Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Create Holograms that you can Touch [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Telecommunications: Full Adoption of Sound Transition Planning Practices by GSA and Selected Agencies Could Improve Planning Efforts (No. GAO-06-476). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolzinger, R., 2010. Strengthening Career and Technical Education in the California Community College System during the financial and labor market crisis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Cushing Made His Choice; Voters Have an Easy One. New York Times B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Crow, 2001; Margules and Pressey, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Margules and Pressey, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Luo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Marine Systems
AbbreviationJ. Mar. Syst.
ISSN (print)0924-7963
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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