How to format your references using the Earth Surface Processes and Landforms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prum RO. 2010. Moulting tail feathers in a juvenile oviraptorisaur. Nature 468 : E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavier LL, Manatschal G. 2006. A mechanism to thin the continental lithosphere at magma-poor margins. Nature 440 : 324–328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gore J, Youk H, van Oudenaarden A. 2009. Snowdrift game dynamics and facultative cheating in yeast. Nature 459 : 253–256.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Islam MR, Nakamura K, Casco-Robles MM, Kunahong A, Inami W, Toyama F, Maruo F, Chiba C. 2014. The newt reprograms mature RPE cells into a unique multipotent state for retinal regeneration. Scientific reports 4 : 6043.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nathanail CP, Bardos RP. 2005. Reclamation of Contaminated Land . John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK
An edited book
Rodríguez RE. 2013. Complex Analysis: In the Spirit of Lipman Bers . 2nd ed. 2013. Kra I and Gilman JP (eds). Springer: New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Nevshupa R, Hiratsuka K. 2015. Triboluminescence. In Fundamentals of Friction and Wear on the Nanoscale , Gnecco E and Meyer E (eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham; 57–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. This Massive Cyber Attack Shows Why You Should Change Your Default Passwords. IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Follow-up Review on Assistance to War Victims in Vietnam . U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharma SP. 2017. U.S. Government Program Managers’ Competencies to Manage Satellite Acquisition Programs, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University: Scottsdale, AZ

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. 1992. Insult My Mom, Please. New York Times 28th October : A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prum, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lavier and Manatschal, 2006; Prum, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lavier and Manatschal, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Islam et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Surface Processes and Landforms
AbbreviationEarth Surf. Process.
ISSN (print)0197-9337
ISSN (online)1096-9837
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Earth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles