How to format your references using the Earth Surface Processes and Landforms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D. 2005. Malaysia plans “red book” in its attempts to go green. Nature 436 : 313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones W, Klin A. 2013. Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2-6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism. Nature 504 : 427–431.
A journal article with 3 authors
Worrell BT, Malik JA, Fokin VV. 2013. Direct evidence of a dinuclear copper intermediate in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 : 457–460.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee J, Dak P, Lee Y, Park H, Choi W, Alam MA, Kim S. 2014. Two-dimensional layered MoS₂ biosensors enable highly sensitive detection of biomolecules. Scientific reports 4 : 7352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Inness P, Dorling S. 2012. Operational Weather Forecasting . John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK
An edited book
Lee G, Howard D, Ślęzak D (eds). 2011. Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology: 5th International Conference, ICHIT 2011, Daejeon, Korea, September 22-24, 2011. Proceedings . Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Means M, Khalbuss WE. 2013. Squamous Lesions in the Pap Test. In Gynecological and Breast Cytopathology Board Review and Self-Assessment , Khalbuss WE and Means M (eds). Springer: New York, NY; 177–262.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2016. CERN Just Released 300 Terabytes Worth Of Data To The Public. IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Strategic Planning Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs across Multiple Agencies . U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee Y. 2017. Lexical Stress Features Affecting the Recognition of English Loanwords in Korean by Native English Hearers, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. 2017. Top Judge Goes Where Flaws Are Acute to Address State of Courts. New York Times 23rd February : A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2005; Jones and Klin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Klin, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Surface Processes and Landforms
AbbreviationEarth Surf. Process.
ISSN (print)0197-9337
ISSN (online)1096-9837
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Earth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

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