How to format your references using the Earth Surface Processes and Landforms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arnold FH. 2001. Combinatorial and computational challenges for biocatalyst design. Nature 409 : 253–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doma MK, Parker R. 2006. Endonucleolytic cleavage of eukaryotic mRNAs with stalls in translation elongation. Nature 440 : 561–564.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin NH, Daeschler EB, Jenkins FA Jr. 2006. The pectoral fin of Tiktaalik roseae and the origin of the tetrapod limb. Nature 440 : 764–771.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Herrero JL, Roberts MJ, Delicato LS, Gieselmann MA, Dayan P, Thiele A. 2008. Acetylcholine contributes through muscarinic receptors to attentional modulation in V1. Nature 454 : 1110–1114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Selyanin MA, Boykov PY, Khabarov VN, Polyak F. 2015. Hyaluronic Acid . John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK
An edited book
Tally RT, Battista CM (eds). 2016. Ecocriticism and Geocriticism: Overlapping Territories in Environmental and Spatial Literary Studies . Palgrave Macmillan US: New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Bray M, Jiang K. 2014. Comparing Systems. In Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods , Bray M, Adamson B, and Mason M (eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham; 139–166.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

Blog post
Evans K. 2017. First Global Analysis Of Alien Species Reveals World’s “Hotspots.” IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Highway Finance: States’ Expanding Use of Tolling Illustrates Diverse Challenges and Strategies . U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickens KR. 2010. Factors influencing teacher job satisfaction and their alignment with current district practices in a suburban school district, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2012. Russia: Prosecutors Investigate After Exhibition Draws Complaints. New York Times 8th December : A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Arnold, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Arnold, 2001; Doma and Parker, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doma and Parker, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Herrero et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Surface Processes and Landforms
AbbreviationEarth Surf. Process.
ISSN (print)0197-9337
ISSN (online)1096-9837
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Earth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

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