How to format your references using the Earth Surface Processes and Landforms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dangl JL. 2007. Plant science. Nibbling at the plant cell nucleus. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 : 1088–1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang Y, Lisberger SG. 2014. Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by complex-spike duration. Nature 510 : 529–532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wall DH, Nielsen UN, Six J. 2015. Soil biodiversity and human health. Nature 528 : 69–76.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gorelik LY, Isacsson A, Galperin YM, Shekhter RI, Jonson M. 2001. Coherent transfer of Cooper pairs by a movable grain. Nature 411 : 454–457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavlović T, Alvarez I, Blanco-Cano R, Grisales A, Osorio A, Sánchez A. 2008. 100 Years of Spanish Cinema . Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK
An edited book
Christianson B, Crispo B, Malcolm J, Stajano F (eds). 2011. Security Protocols XIX: 19th International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, March 28-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers . Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Dorfs D, Eychmüller A. 2008. Multishell semiconductor nanocrystals. In Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Assembly, Spectroscopy and Applications , Rogach AL (ed). Springer: Vienna; 101–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

Blog post
Fang J. 2015. Could A Frog’s Own Skin Microbes Fight Off A Killer Fungus? IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. State Department: Problems in Compiling List of Countries Restricting Longshore Activities . U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toosi F. 2017. Decision Analysis Techniques for Adult Learners: Application to Leadership, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Koblin J. 2017. Ex-Fox Hosts Engage in Feud On Settlement. New York Times 23rd October : B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dangl, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dangl, 2007; Yang and Lisberger, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang and Lisberger, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gorelik et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Surface Processes and Landforms
AbbreviationEarth Surf. Process.
ISSN (print)0197-9337
ISSN (online)1096-9837
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Earth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles