How to format your references using the BMC Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dijkstra JM. TH2 and Treg candidate genes in elephant shark. Nature. 2014;511:E7-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kelemen PB, Hirth G. A periodic shear-heating mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes in the mantle. Nature. 2007;446:787–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Murakoshi H, Wang H, Yasuda R. Local, persistent activation of Rho GTPases during plasticity of single dendritic spines. Nature. 2011;472:100–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kuo H-C, Hui S, Choi J, Asiegbu FO, Valkonen JPT, Lee Y-H. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5135.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Jelaska D. Gears and Gear Drives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Thilenius P, Pahlberg C, Havila V, editors. Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Iosifidis P, Wheeler M. Western Media Policy Frameworks and Values. In: Wheeler M, editor. Public Spheres and Mediated Social Networks in the Western Context and Beyond. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 65–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Nursing.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Thank Grandmothers For Romance. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/grandmother-hypothesis-links-longevity-and-coupling-grandmothers/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Activities of the National Institute of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ryan BA. Computer-Based Versus Paper-Pencil Modes of Administration United States Government End of Course Exams: Student Cumulative Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Success. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. A Star Still Airlifts the Show. New York Times. 2017;:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Nursing
AbbreviationBMC Nurs.
ISSN (online)1472-6955
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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