How to format your references using the BMC Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Delude CM. Deep phenotyping: The details of disease. Nature. 2015;527:S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Vojvodic A, Nørskov JK. Chemistry. Optimizing perovskites for the water-splitting reaction. Science. 2011;334:1355–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sawai S, Thomason PA, Cox EC. An autoregulatory circuit for long-range self-organization in Dictyostelium cell populations. Nature. 2005;433:323–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fries P, Reynolds JH, Rorie AE, Desimone R. Modulation of oscillatory neuronal synchronization by selective visual attention. Science. 2001;291:1560–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Goldberger AL, Goldberger ZD. Becoming a Consummate Clinician. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Wang Z. Simultaneous Multi-Pollutants Removal in Flue Gas by Ozone. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ren B, Ge SS, Chen C, Fua C-H, Lee TH. Altitude and Yaw Control of Helicopters with Uncertain Dynamics. In: Ge SS, Chen C, Fua C-H, Lee TH, editors. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 93–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Nursing.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Find Direct Evidence That Atmospheric CO2 Heats Earth’s Crust. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/scientists-find-direct-evidence-atmospheric-co2-heats-earth-s-crust/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Agencies and OMB Should Strengthen Processes for Identifying and Overseeing High Risk Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gauen KE. The impact of the Instructional Practices Inventory at an Illinois middle school. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J. A Family Revolving Around a Disability. New York Times. 2016;:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Nursing
AbbreviationBMC Nurs.
ISSN (online)1472-6955
ScopeGeneral Nursing

Other styles