How to format your references using the Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roy D. Cascaded two-photon nonlinearity in a one-dimensional waveguide with multiple two-level emitters. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Menezes T, Roth C. Symbolic regression of generative network models. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park IU, Peacey MW, Munafò MR. Modelling the effects of subjective and objective decision making in scientific peer review. Nature. 2014;506(7486):93-96.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rotter M, Wang ZS, Boothroyd AT, Prabhakaran D, Tanaka A, Doerr M. Mechanism of spin crossover in LaCoO3 resolved by shape magnetostriction in pulsed magnetic fields. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy DB, Davidson MW. Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Reigosa MJ, Pedrol N, González L, eds. Allelopathy: A Physiological Process with Ecological Implications. Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Clack JA, Anderson JS. Early Tetrapods: Experimenting with Form and Function. In: Clack JA, Fay RR, Popper AN, eds. Evolution of the Vertebrate Ear: Evidence from the Fossil Record. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Springer International Publishing; 2016:71-105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mike Baird Is Right, Culling Sharks Doesn’t Work – Here’s What We Can Do Instead. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Advance Sheets: Volume 74, Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klepper EM. Andragogy and Workplace Relationships: A Mixed-Methods Study Exploring Employees’ Perceptions of Their Relationships with Their Supervisors. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. For Once, Soccer Gods Smile on Spanish. New York Times. July 4, 2010:SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
AbbreviationCurr. Pharm. Teach. Learn.
ISSN (print)1877-1297
ScopeGeneral Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles