How to format your references using the Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buriak JM. Chemistry. Chemistry with nanoscale perfection. Science. 2004;304(5671):692-693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berenbaum MR, Eisner T. Ecology. Bugs’ bugs. Science. 2008;322(5898):52-53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Discher DE, Mooney DJ, Zandstra PW. Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Science. 2009;324(5935):1673-1677.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jimenez R, Flynn C, MacDonald J, Gibson BK. The cosmic production of helium. Science. 2003;299(5612):1552-1555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duggan D. Enterprise Software Architecture and Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Singh M, ed. Novel Immune Potentiators and Delivery Technologies for Next Generation Vaccines. Springer US; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Klemm M, Duran A, Tian X, Saito H, Caballero D, Martorell X. Extending OpenMP* with Vector Constructs for Modern Multicore SIMD Architectures. In: Chapman BM, Massaioli F, Müller MS, Rorro M, eds. OpenMP in a Heterogeneous World: 8th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2012, Rome, Italy, June 11-13, 2012. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2012:59-72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning.

Blog post
Fang J. Crystal with “Forbidden Symmetry” Found in 4.5-Billion-Year-Old Meteorite. IFLScience. Published March 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Identification of NASA Research and Development Programs Subject to Benefit-Cost Analysis. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waldner BW. Determining Relationships Between Technology Acceptance and Employee Attitudes Toward Automated Workflows in the Oil Industry. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. In Unlikely Urban Shadows, A Shopping Haven Takes Root. New York Times. February 16, 2003:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
AbbreviationCurr. Pharm. Teach. Learn.
ISSN (print)1877-1297
ScopeGeneral Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

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