How to format your references using the Automated Software Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Automated Software Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livingstone, M.S.: Is it warm? Is it real? Or just low spatial frequency? Science. 290, 1299b (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sontheimer, E.J., Carthew, R.W.: Molecular biology. Argonaute journeys into the heart of RISC. Science. 305, 1409–1410 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Scholz, M., Lo, C.-C., Chain, P.S.G.: Improved assemblies using a source-agnostic pipeline for MetaGenomic Assembly by Merging (MeGAMerge) of contigs. Sci. Rep. 4, 6480 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Morita, M., Chen, J., Fujino, M., Kitazawa, Y., Sugioka, A., Zhong, L., Li, X.-K.: Identification of microRNAs involved in acute rejection and spontaneous tolerance in murine hepatic allografts. Sci. Rep. 4, 6649 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vogel, W., Kalb, H.: Large-Scale Solar Thermal Power. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2010)
An edited book
Balas, V.E., Jain, L.C., Kovačević, B. eds: Soft Computing Applications: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications (SOFA 2014), Volume 2. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Yesilonis, I.D., Pouyat, R.V.: Carbon Stocks in Urban Forest Remnants: Atlanta and Baltimore as Case Studies. In: Lal, R. and Augustin, B. (eds.) Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems. pp. 103–120. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Automated Software Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Teenage Brains Are Wired For Learning,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: VA and DOD Are Making Progress in Sharing Medical Information, but Are Far from Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, W.: Beneath the Silence, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.: Illinois Debt Takes Toll, Study Finds, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livingstone 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Livingstone 2000; Sontheimer and Carthew 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sontheimer and Carthew 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Morita et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAutomated Software Engineering
AbbreviationAutom. Softw. Eng.
ISSN (print)0928-8910
ISSN (online)1573-7535

Other styles