How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Alberts B. H5N1. Introduction. Science. 2012;336:1521.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Veiseh O, Langer R. Diabetes: A smart insulin patch. Nature. 2015;524:39–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Catrysse PB, Liu V, Fan S. Complete power concentration into a single waveguide in large-scale waveguide array lenses. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6635.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Koss MJ, Blecha L, Bernhard P, Hung C-L, Lu JR, Trakthenbrot B, et al. A population of luminous accreting black holes with hidden mergers. Nature. 2018;563:214–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lau VKN, Ricky Kwok Y-K. Channel-Adaptive Technologies and Cross-Layer Designs for Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Reinhard T, Larkin F, editors. Cornea and External Eye Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ramesh R, Jayakumar VK, Selvakumar JM, Doss Prakash V, Ramadass GA, Atmanand MA. Distributed Real Time Control Systems for Deep Water ROV (ROSUB 6000). In: Vadakkepat P, Kim J-H, Jesse N, Mamun AA, Kiong TK, Baltes J, et al., editors. Trends in Intelligent Robotics: 13th FIRA Robot World Congress, FIRA 2010, Bangalore, India, September 15-17, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology.

Blog post
1. Evans K. Australian Zoo Gives Badly Burnt Cockatoo New Wings In Icarus-Inspired Surgery. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Projects: Survey of State Departments of Transportation (GAO-12-637SP, June 2012), an E-supplement to GAO-12-593. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jun. Report No.: GAO-12-637SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brookman D. Establishing context for referents in online chatroom conversations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Ruprecht T. In Too Deep. New York Times. 2011 Jul 7;MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Rheumatology
AbbreviationCurr. Treatm. Opt. Rheumatol.
ISSN (online)2198-6002

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