How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Friedman M. Paleontology. Emerging onto a tangled bank. Science. 2009;324:341–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Dauphas N, Kasting JF. Low pCO2 in the pore water, not in the Archean air. Nature. 2011;474:E2-3; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhang Q, Li Y, Tsien RW. The dynamic control of kiss-and-run and vesicular reuse probed with single nanoparticles. Science. 2009;323:1448–53.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Prainsack B, Reardon J, Hindmarsh R, Gottweis H, Naue U, Lunshof JE. Personal genomes: Misdirected precaution. Nature. 2008;456:34–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Willis DO. Business Basics for Dentists. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Liu G, Yang C, Hao T, Luo X, editors. Oil and Gas Resources in China: A Roadmap to 2050. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. D’Amico S, De Matteis M, Rousseaux O, Philips K, Gyselinck B, Neirynck D, et al. Ultra Wide Band in Medical Applications. In: Mukhopadhyay SC, Lay-Ekuakille A, editors. Advances in Biomedical Sensing, Measurements, Instrumentation and Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 43–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. How A ‘Weather Bomb’ Shook The Earth – And Why That’s Not An Earthquake [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Exploration: NASA’s Deep Space Missions Are Experiencing Long Delays. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 May. Report No.: NSIAD-88-128BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Restrepo E. Eventalizing blackness in Colombia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. The Supreme Court’s Silent Failure. New York Times. 2016 Jun 25;SR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Rheumatology
AbbreviationCurr. Treatm. Opt. Rheumatol.
ISSN (online)2198-6002

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