How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lightman A. In the name of love? Nature. 2001;413:681.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yang G, Zhou L. Zwitterionic versus canonical amino acids over the various defects in zeolites: a two-layer ONIOM calculation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6594.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Strauss E, Oszkinis G, Staniszewski R. SEPP1 gene variants and abdominal aortic aneurysm: gene association in relation to metabolic risk factors and peripheral arterial disease coexistence. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7061.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stimpert AK, DeRuiter SL, Southall BL, Moretti DJ, Falcone EA, Goldbogen JA, et al. Acoustic and foraging behavior of a Baird’s beaked whale, Berardius bairdii, exposed to simulated sonar. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7031.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Heller D. Hairspray. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Matsushita M, Schoenbaum TJ, editors. Emerging Issues in Sustainable Development: International Trade Law and Policy Relating to Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Berg S, Nyberg T, Kubart T. Modelling of Reactive Sputtering Processes. In: Depla D, Mahieu S, editors. Reactive Sputter Deposition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 131–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. How To Stop A Zombie Apocalypse – With Science [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Charter Schools: Recent Experiences in Accessing Federal Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Mar. Report No.: T-HEHS-98-129.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Baghdadi M. A comparison of gender representation in English (EFL) and Arabic (AFL) textbooks in Iran: A critical discourse analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McNAMARA J. Swift Beyond Satire. New York Times. 2017 Feb 20;BR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Rheumatology
AbbreviationCurr. Treatm. Opt. Rheumatol.
ISSN (online)2198-6002

Other styles