How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jorde LB. Evolution. Where we’re hot, they’re not. Science. 2005;308:60–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Dupont S, Pörtner H. Marine science: get ready for ocean acidification. Nature. 2013;498:429.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tsakmakidis KL, Boardman AD, Hess O. “Trapped rainbow” storage of light in metamaterials. Nature. 2007;450:397–401.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Higgins BL, Berry DW, Bartlett SD, Wiseman HM, Pryde GJ. Entanglement-free Heisenberg-limited phase estimation. Nature. 2007;450:393–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Peters M, Glasser D, Hildebrandt D, Kauchali S. Membrane Process Design Using Residue Curve Maps. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Sirgy MJ, Phillips R, Rahtz D, editors. Community Quality-of-Life Indicators: Best Cases V. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Periakaruppan R, Nadarajan R. Automatic Clustering of Research Articles Using Domain Ontology and Fuzzy Logic. In: Chiu DKW, Wang M, Popescu E, Li Q, Lau R, Shih TK, et al., editors. Advances in Web-Based Learning – ICWL 2013 Workshops: USL 2013, IWSLL 2013, KMEL 2013, IWCWL 2013, WIL 2013, and IWEEC 2013, Kenting, Taiwan, October 6-9, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Sumatran Tiger Gives Birth To Triplets In London Zoo [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mission Support Project: Analyzing User Requirements for Assignment Management Tasks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jul. Report No.: OIMC-92-3.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Griffith A. The Curious Case of Implementation: Enactment of the California Community College Student Equity Initiative [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schwartz J. Pardon My Sweat, Pass the Borscht. New York Times. 2017 Jun 1;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Rheumatology
AbbreviationCurr. Treatm. Opt. Rheumatol.
ISSN (online)2198-6002

Other styles