How to format your references using the SSM - Population Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SSM - Population Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rhodes, G. (2014). The career I dreamed of? Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6202), 1414.
A journal article with 2 authors
Straus, S. E., & Chesney, M. A. (2006). Science and government. Enhanced: in defense of NCCAM. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 303–304.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilg, O., Hanski, I., & Sittler, B. (2003). Cyclic dynamics in a simple vertebrate predator-prey community. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5646), 866–868.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Noginov, M. A., Zhu, G., Belgrave, A. M., Bakker, R., Shalaev, V. M., Narimanov, E. E., Stout, S., Herz, E., Suteewong, T., & Wiesner, U. (2009). Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser. Nature, 460(7259), 1110–1112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Janke, S. J., & Tinsley, F. C. (2005). Introduction to Linear Models and Statistical Inference. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Narhi, L. O. (Ed.). (2013). Biophysics for Therapeutic Protein Development (Vol. 4). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gélinas, F., Camion, C., Bates, K., Anstis, S., Piché, C., Khan, M., & Grant, E. (2015). The Challenges of Participatory Justice for Public Adjudication. In C. Camion, K. Bates, S. Anstis, C. Piché, M. Khan, & E. Grant (Eds.), Foundations of Civil Justice: Toward a Value-Based Framework for Reform (pp. 81–104). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SSM - Population Health.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 7). Peeling Sticky Tape Produces X-rays. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). The School Dropout Problem (No. 129915). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Creed, C. K. (2017). Identifying Controls on Patterns of Intermittent Streamflow in Three Streams of the American Southwest: A Geospatial Approach [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1997, November 16). Yourself Esq. New York Times, 143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rhodes, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Rhodes, 2014; Straus & Chesney, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Straus & Chesney, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Gilg et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Noginov et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSSM - Population Health
AbbreviationSSM Popul. Health
ISSN (print)2352-8273

Other styles