How to format your references using the SSM - Population Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SSM - Population Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hertwig, R. (2012). Psychology. Tapping into the wisdom of the crowd--with confidence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6079), 303–304.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huxley, A., & Green, A. G. (2007). Physics. Electrons acquire a split personality in bismuth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5845), 1694–1695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rignot, E., Rivera, A., & Casassa, G. (2003). Contribution of the Patagonia Icefields of South America to sea level rise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5644), 434–437.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kleijn, D., Berendse, F., Smit, R., & Gilissen, N. (2001). Agri-environment schemes do not effectively protect biodiversity in Dutch agricultural landscapes. Nature, 413(6857), 723–725.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kodama, K. P., & Hinnov, L. A. (2014). Rock Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Valmari, A. (Ed.). (2006). Model Checking Software: 13th International SPIN Workshop, Vienna, Austria, March 30 - April 1, 2006. Proceedings (Vol. 3925). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Szabo, A. (2005). Interplanetary Discontinuities and Shocks in the Earth’s Magnetosheath. In J.-A. Sauvaud & Z. Němeček (Eds.), Multiscale Processes in the Earth’s Magnetosphere: From Interball to Cluster (pp. 57–71). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SSM - Population Health.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 7). A Military View On Climate Change: It’s Eroding Our National Security And We Should Prepare For It. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Federal Communications Commission Can Further Improve Its Licensing Activities (No. RCED-83-90). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGowan, H. C. (2008). The military experience: Perceptions from senior military officers’ wives (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. (2014, April 27). A Twist on the Neighborhood Bar. New York Times, p. LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hertwig, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hertwig, 2012; Huxley & Green, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huxley & Green, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Rignot, Rivera, & Casassa, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kleijn, Berendse, Smit, & Gilissen, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSSM - Population Health
AbbreviationSSM Popul. Health
ISSN (print)2352-8273

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