How to format your references using the SSM - Population Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SSM - Population Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill, G. E. (2004). Ecology. A head start for some redstarts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5705), 2201–2202.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dudin, Y. O., & Kuzmich, A. (2012). Strongly interacting Rydberg excitations of a cold atomic gas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6083), 887–889.
A journal article with 3 authors
West, S. A., Pen, I., & Griffin, A. S. (2002). Cooperation and competition between relatives. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5565), 72–75.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, Z.-H., Wild, T., Xiong, Y., Sylvers, P., Zhang, Y., Zhang, L., Wahl, L., Wahl, S. M., Kozlowski, S., & Notkins, A. L. (2013). Polyreactive antibodies plus complement enhance the phagocytosis of cells made apoptotic by UV-light or HIV. Scientific Reports, 3, 2271.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smeets, R., der Sluis, L. van, Kapetanović, M., Peelo, D. F., & Janssen, A. (2014). Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schalk, G. (2010). A Practical Guide to Brain–Computer Interfacing with BCI2000: General-Purpose Software for Brain–Computer Interface Research, Data Acquisition, Stimulus Presentation, and Brain Monitoring (J. Mellinger, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Baignères, T., & Vaudenay, S. (2006). Proving the Security of AES Substitution-Permutation Network. In B. Preneel & S. Tavares (Eds.), Selected Areas in Cryptography: 12th International Workshop, SAC 2005, Kingston, ON, Canada, August 11-12, 2005, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 65–81). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SSM - Population Health.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 18). How Rain Helped Shaped The Surface Of Mars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Multiyear Authorizations for Research and Development (PAD-81-61). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heffner, M. D. (2017). Informing Decision-Making for Derailments Involving Hazmat: An Analysis of Phmsa Train Accident Data [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson, J. (2017, May 4). University Presses. New York Times, BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hill, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Dudin & Kuzmich, 2012; Hill, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dudin & Kuzmich, 2012)
  • Three authors: (West et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSSM - Population Health
AbbreviationSSM Popul. Health
ISSN (print)2352-8273

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