How to format your references using the SSM - Population Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SSM - Population Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strasser, P. (2015). CHEMISTRY. Catalysts by Platonic design. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6246), 379–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huber, C., & Wächtershäuser, G. (2006). alpha-Hydroxy and alpha-amino acids under possible Hadean, volcanic origin-of-life conditions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5799), 630–632.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton, M. J., Wills, M. A., & Hitchin, R. (2000). Quality of the fossil record through time. Nature, 403(6769), 534–537.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, D., Carpena-Núñez, J., Fonseca, L. F., Biaggi-Labiosa, A., & Hunter, G. W. (2014). Shape-controlled synthesis of palladium and copper superlattice nanowires for high-stability hydrogen sensors. Scientific Reports, 4, 3773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG. (2013). MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2013. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Poveda, R. L. (2016). Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites (N. Gupta, Ed.; 1st ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Manzon, M. (2014). Comparing Places. In M. Bray, B. Adamson, & M. Mason (Eds.), Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (pp. 97–137). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SSM - Population Health.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, April 19). Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From Adult Skin. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Claims of Civilian Employees Who Were Overpaid per Diem while Attending Training Schools (B-190014). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldner, V. R. (2010). Arizona nurses’ attitudes toward legislated minimum staffing ratios: Impact on the workplace [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, September 14). In Ruling on Insider Trading, A Court Restores Rationality. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Strasser, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Huber & Wächtershäuser, 2006; Strasser, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huber & Wächtershäuser, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Benton et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSSM - Population Health
AbbreviationSSM Popul. Health
ISSN (print)2352-8273

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