How to format your references using the SSM - Population Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SSM - Population Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marangos, J. (2000). Faster than a speeding photon. Nature, 406(6793), 243–244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell, A. M., & Robinson, G. E. (2011). Genomics. Behavior and the dynamic genome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6034), 1161–1162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iyengar, V. K., Reeve, H. K., & Eisner, T. (2002). Paternal inheritance of a female moth’s mating preference. Nature, 419(6909), 830–832.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Roberts, R. M., Smith, G. W., Bazer, F. W., Cibelli, J., Seidel, G. E., Jr, Bauman, D. E., Reynolds, L. P., & Ireland, J. J. (2009). Research priorities. Farm animal research in crisis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5926), 468–469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wright, J. R., & Cooper, J. E. (2014). Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Mitchell, R. C., & Moore, S. A. (Eds.). (2012). Politics, Participation & Power Relations: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Critical Citizenship in the Classroom and Community. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Pang, Z., Wu, X., & Xu, L. (2012). A Comparative Study of RPCL and MCE Based Discriminative Training Methods for LVCSR. In Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhou, C. Zhang, & Y. Li (Eds.), Intelligent Science and Intelligent Data Engineering: Second Sino-foreign-interchange Workshop, IScIDE 2011, Xi’an, China, October 23-25, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 27–34). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SSM - Population Health.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 11). These Freshly Erupted Hawaiian Lava Flows Are Nothing Short Of Spectacular. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Benchmarking: Costly and Difficult, but Often Necessary When Buying Computer Equipment or Services (AFMD-83-5). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tucker, M. T. (2009). Structure-property stress state dependent relationships under varying strain rates [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013, October 20). At These Screenings, the Writers Get the Applause. New York Times, A25B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marangos, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bell & Robinson, 2011; Marangos, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bell & Robinson, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Iyengar et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Roberts et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSSM - Population Health
AbbreviationSSM Popul. Health
ISSN (print)2352-8273

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