How to format your references using the SSM - Population Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SSM - Population Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vega-Villa, K. (2014). Biodiversity: Ecuador deters protection efforts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6168), 248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brucker, R. M., & Bordenstein, S. R. (2013). The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6146), 667–669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christensen, U. R., Holzwarth, V., & Reiners, A. (2009). Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars. Nature, 457(7226), 167–169.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gomez-Roman, N., Grandori, C., Eisenman, R. N., & White, R. J. (2003). Direct activation of RNA polymerase III transcription by c-Myc. Nature, 421(6920), 290–294.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joyce, P. M., & Lipton, D. (2013). Lamentations Through the Centuries. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Plotnikov, P. (2012). Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations: Theory and Shape Optimization (J. Sokołowski, Ed.; Vol. 73). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boureanu, I., Mitrokotsa, A., & Vaudenay, S. (2014). Towards Secure Distance Bounding. In S. Moriai (Ed.), Fast Software Encryption: 20th International Workshop, FSE 2013, Singapore, March 11-13, 2013. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 55–67). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SSM - Population Health.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 22). Scientists Develop Mantis Shrimp-Inspired Sensors That Can Detect Cancer. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Aviation Safety: FAA Action Plan for Chicago O’Hare International Airport (RCED-89-114). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long, K. E. (2009). Voluntary exiles: Short-term Western expatriates in three Chinese cities [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, March 27). Detainee Case Will Pose Delicate Question for Court. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vega-Villa, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brucker & Bordenstein, 2013; Vega-Villa, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brucker & Bordenstein, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Christensen et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gomez-Roman et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSSM - Population Health
AbbreviationSSM Popul. Health
ISSN (print)2352-8273

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