How to format your references using the The Ceylon Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ceylon Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lundstrom CC. Rapid diffusive infiltration of sodium into partially molten peridotite. Nature. 2000 Feb 3;403(6769):527–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schuster-Böckler B, Lehner B. Chromatin organization is a major influence on regional mutation rates in human cancer cells. Nature. 2012 Aug 23;488(7412):504–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yue JD, Zhang YR, Fan H. Quantum-enhanced metrology for multiple phase estimation with noise. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 4;4:5933.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lanin AA, Voronin AA, Fedotov AB, Zheltikov AM. Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 20;4:6670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McFedries P. Twitter Tips, Tricks, and Tweets. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Greco S, Bouchon-Meunier B, Coletti G, Fedrizzi M, Matarazzo B, Yager RR, editors. Advances in Computational Intelligence: 14th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems, IPMU 2012, Catania, Italy, July 9-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XVI, 692 p. 110 illus. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 300).
A chapter in an edited book
Tryfonopoulos C, Idreos S, Koubarakis M, Raftopoulou P. Distributed Large-Scale Information Filtering. In: Hameurlain A, Küng J, Wagner R, editors. Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XIII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 91–122. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ceylon Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Dinosaurs May Have Been Warm-Blooded After All. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Should Consider Limiting and/or Charging User Fees for Civilian Consultations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Sep. Report No.: HRD-82-129.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santos E. Altruism in Psychotherapy: Altruistic Acts as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Estonia: Vodka Pipeline. New York Times. 2004 Dec 14;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ceylon Medical Journal
AbbreviationCeylon Med. J.
ISSN (print)0009-0875
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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