How to format your references using the The Ceylon Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ceylon Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith S. Structural biology. Architectural options for a fatty acid synthase. Science. 2006 Mar 3;311(5765):1251–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Overpeck J, Udall B. Climate change. Dry times ahead. Science. 2010 Jun 25;328(5986):1642–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Olff H, Ritchie ME, Prins HHT. Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature. 2002 Feb 21;415(6874):901–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tajkhorshid E, Nollert P, Jensen MØ, Miercke LJW, O’Connell J, Stroud RM, et al. Control of the selectivity of the aquaporin water channel family by global orientational tuning. Science. 2002 Apr 19;296(5567):525–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morvillo N. Science and Religion. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Bouvry P, Kłopotek MA, Leprévost F, Marciniak M, Mykowiecka A, Rybiński H, editors. Security and Intelligent Information Systems: International Joint Conferences, SIIS 2011, Warsaw, Poland, June 13-14, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XVII, 401 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7053).
A chapter in an edited book
Odifreddi P. 1994. In: Betti R, Guerraggio A, Termini S, editors. Storie e protagonisti della matematica italiana: per raccontare 20 anni di «Lettera Matematica Pristem». Milano: Springer; 2013. p. 49–64. (I blu).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ceylon Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Visualization Of Recent Asteroid Impacts With Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Chemical Assessments: EPA’s New Assessment Process Will Further Limit the Productivity and Credibility of Its Integrated Risk Information System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 May. Report No.: GAO-08-810T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scaringe JG. An investigation into the faculty development practices in chiropractic education programs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Hillary Clinton Visits Capitol In Vivid Display of Her Clout. New York Times. 1993 Feb 5;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ceylon Medical Journal
AbbreviationCeylon Med. J.
ISSN (print)0009-0875
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles