How to format your references using the The Ceylon Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ceylon Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weaver JF. Chemistry. Entropies of adsorbed molecules exceed expectations. Science. 2013 Jan 4;339(6115):39–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen A, Koehler AN. Drug discovery. Tying up a transcription factor. Science. 2015 Feb 13;347(6223):713–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Innes C, Anand M, Bauch CT. The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2689.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lenarčič T, Albert I, Böhm H, Hodnik V, Pirc K, Zavec AB, et al. Eudicot plant-specific sphingolipids determine host selectivity of microbial NLP cytolysins. Science. 2017 Dec 15;358(6369):1431–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shelton T. Business Models for the Social Mobile Cloud. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Kalviainen H, Parkkinen J, Kaarna A, editors. Image Analysis: 14th Scandinavian Conference, SCIA 2005, Joensuu, Finland, June 19-22, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XXII, 1270 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3540).
A chapter in an edited book
Filippone G, D’Ambrosio D, Marocco D, Spataro W. Evolving Protection Measures for Lava Risk Management Decision Making. In: Madani K, Dourado A, Rosa A, Filipe J, Kacprzyk J, editors. Computational Intelligence: Revised and Selected Papers of the International Joint Conference, IJCCI 2013, Vilamoura, Portugal, September 20-22, 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–81. (Studies in Computational Intelligence).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ceylon Medical Journal.

Blog post
Luntz S. Poachers Are Using Scientific Papers To Locate Endangered Species’ Whereabouts. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Study of Guaranteed Student Loan Bankruptcy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Apr. Report No.: HRD-77-80.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farooq AS. Singing the blues: Indicators of mental illness among nursing home elderly [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Delreal JA, Bromwich JE. Suspect, an Unmoored Retiree, Kept Quiet and Gambled Often. New York Times. 2017 Oct 2;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ceylon Medical Journal
AbbreviationCeylon Med. J.
ISSN (print)0009-0875
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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