How to format your references using the The Ceylon Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ceylon Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ziff RM. Mathematics. Getting the jump on explosive percolation. Science. 2013 Mar 8;339(6124):1159–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kumar K, Yang E-H. On the growth mode of two-lobed curvilinear graphene domains at atmospheric pressure. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arakawa H, Hauschild J, Buerstedde J-M. Requirement of the activation-induced deaminase (AID) gene for immunoglobulin gene conversion. Science. 2002 Feb 15;295(5558):1301–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu F, Hill RS, Schaffner SF, Sabeti PC, Wang ET, Mignault AA, et al. Comment on “Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens.” Science. 2007 Apr 20;316(5823):370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fell GJ. Decoding the IT Value Problem. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Parab JS. Exploring C for Microcontrollers: A Hands on Approach. Shelake VG, Kamat RK, Naik GM, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. XV, 157 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Aronoff CE, McClure SL, Ward JL. Preparing Your Business for Succession. In: McClure SL, Ward JL, editors. Family Business Succession: The Final Test of Greatness. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2011. p. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ceylon Medical Journal.

Blog post
Davis J. China To Encourage Its Citizens To Eat 50 Percent Less Meat [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Implications of Joint NASA/DOD Participation in Space Shuttle Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Nov. Report No.: NSIAD-84-13.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rahmani M. On the calculation of time-domain impulse-response of systems from band-limited scattering-parameters using wavelet transform [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Mets Thank Troops In a Meaningful Setting. New York Times. 2011 May 4;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ceylon Medical Journal
AbbreviationCeylon Med. J.
ISSN (print)0009-0875
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles