How to format your references using the The Ceylon Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ceylon Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mueller KL. Innate immunity. Recognizing the first responders. Introduction. Science. 2010 Jan 15;327(5963):283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yun MH, Hiom K. CtIP-BRCA1 modulates the choice of DNA double-strand-break repair pathway throughout the cell cycle. Nature. 2009 May 21;459(7245):460–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H. Solvated electrons in high-temperature melts and glasses of the room-temperature stable electride [Ca₂₄Al₂₈O₆₄]4+·4e. Science. 2011 Jul 1;333(6038):71–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ahmadi M, Bruschi DE, Sabín C, Adesso G, Fuentes I. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies. Sci Rep. 2014 May 22;4:4996.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schober H. Transparent Shells. Berlin, Germany: Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2015.
An edited book
Baddeley A. Stochastic Geometry: Lectures given at the C.I.M.E. Summer School held in Martina Franca, Italy, September 13–18, 2004. Bárány I, Schneider R, Weil W, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. XII, 292 p. 36 illus. (Lecture Notes in Mathematics; vol. 1892).
A chapter in an edited book
Poso S. Change Monitoring with Permanent Sample Plots. In: Kangas A, Maltamo M, editors. Forest Inventory: Methodology and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 65–84. (Managing Forest Ecosystems).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ceylon Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrews R. Earth Is Now Warmer Than It’s Been In 120,000 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Test and Evaluation: DOD Has Been Slow In Improving Testing of Software-Intensive Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-93-198.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Biller JT. Cyber-Terrorism: Finding a Common Starting Point [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. The Self-Aware Dog. New York Times. 2017 Sep 22;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ceylon Medical Journal
AbbreviationCeylon Med. J.
ISSN (print)0009-0875
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles