How to format your references using the Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hellstrom J. Anthropology. Absolute dating of cave art. Science. 2012;336:1387–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rolett B, Diamond J. Environmental predictors of pre-European deforestation on Pacific islands. Nature. 2004;431:443–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kaeberlein M, Rabinovitch PS, Martin GM. Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine. Science. 2015;350:1191–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nara H, Tanimoto H, Tohjima Y, Mukai H, Nojiri Y, Machida T. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hu JC. Asset Securitization. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Aguirre A, Foster B, Merali Z, editors. How Should Humanity Steer the Future? 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nenon T. The Limits of Biomedical Ethics and the Specific Role of Phenomenology in Biomedical Ethics. In: Wiggins OP, Allen AC, editors. Clinical Ethics and the Necessity of Stories: Essays in Honor of Richard M Zaner. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. UN Meets Target To Treat 15 million People With HIV [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information on the Labor Department’s Skill Training Improvement Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Jan. Report No.: HRD-79-19.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sarantopoulos ND. The relationship between values and leadership styles of nonprofit leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schilling MK. Mother of Invention. New York Times. 2017 Apr 10;M2114.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Rep.
ISSN (online)2167-4833

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