How to format your references using the Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jackson SC. Climate change. Parallel pursuit of near-term and long-term climate mitigation. Science. 2009;326:526–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Verchère A, Menon AK. Structural biology: Lipid gymnastics. Nature. 2015;524:420–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhang L, Lu C, Tieu K. Atomistic simulation of tensile deformation behavior of ∑5 tilt grain boundaries in copper bicrystal. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5919.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hof B, Westerweel J, Schneider TM, Eckhardt B. Finite lifetime of turbulence in shear flows. Nature. 2006;443:59–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Thie PR, Keough GE. An Introduction to Linear Programming and Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Seckbach J, editor. Life as We Know It. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Angioni E, Cabiddu F. Corporate Customership: The Core Components of the Relationship Between Firm and Customer. In: Caporarello L, Di Martino B, Martinez M, editors. Smart Organizations and Smart Artifacts: Fostering Interaction Between People, Technologies and Processes. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports.

Blog post
1. Hale T. How To Calm Waves On A Lake With A Spoonful Of Olive OIl [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Trends in Highway Fatalities 1975-1987. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Mar. Report No.: PEMD-90-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Motala S. Siblings caring for elderly parents with dementia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times. 1993 Dec 12;1321.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Rep.
ISSN (online)2167-4833

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