How to format your references using the Lexicography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lexicography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Postma, Erik. 2011. Comment on “Additive genetic breeding values correlate with the load of partially deleterious mutations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333: 1221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nuth, Joseph A., 3rd, and Natasha M. Johnson. 2012. Astronomy. Complex protostellar chemistry. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 424–425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taneike, Masaki, Fujio Abe, and Kota Sawada. 2003. Creep-strengthening of steel at high temperatures using nano-sized carbonitride dispersions. Nature 424: 294–296.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nellist, P. D., M. F. Chisholm, N. Dellby, O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Murfitt, Z. S. Szilagyi, A. R. Lupini, A. Borisevich, W. H. Sides Jr, and S. J. Pennycook. 2004. Direct sub-angstrom imaging of a crystal lattice. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305: 1741.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shore, Steven N. 2005. The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Schacknow, Paul N., and John R. Samples, ed. 2010. The Glaucoma Book: A Practical, Evidence-Based Approach to Patient Care. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Humar, Abhinav, Khalid O. Khwaja, and David E. R. Sutherland. 2006. Pancreas Transplantation. In Atlas of Organ Transplantation, ed. Arthur J. Matas and William D. Payne, 133–195. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lexicography.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. How To Predict The Ratio Of Males To Females In Wild Animals. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 16.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Responses to Questions for the Record; Hearing on The Future of Air Traffic Control: The R&D Agenda. GAO-06-778R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fox, Richard N. 2009. Interpreting architecture: A Krauszian approach. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: U.S. Asylum For Blast Survivor. New York Times, January 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Postma 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Postma 2011; Nuth and Johnson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nuth and Johnson 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Nellist et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLexicography
ISSN (print)2197-4292
ISSN (online)2197-4306

Other styles