How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiology Cases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiology Cases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wigley TML. The climate change commitment. Science 2005;307:1766–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armitage BA, Berget PB. Chemistry. An enlightening structure-function relationship. Science 2008;319:1195–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keppler H, Wiedenbeck M, Shcheka SS. Carbon solubility in olivine and the mode of carbon storage in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 2003;424:414–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fukuda K, Hikichi K, Sekine T, Takeda Y, Minamiki T, Kumaki D, et al. Strain sensitivity and durability in p-type and n-type organic thin-film transistors with printed silver electrodes. Sci Rep 2013;3:2048.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burnett R, Brunstrom A, Nilsson AG. Perspectives on Multimedia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Inamuddin, Luqman M, editors. Ion Exchange Technology I: Theory and Materials. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Brinks R, Busch M. Local Compensation for Respiratory Motion in List-mode PET. In: Buzug TM, Holz D, Bongartz J, Kohl-Bareis M, Hartmann U, Weber S, editors. Advances in Medical Engineering, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 31–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiology Cases.

Blog post
Luntz S. Evidence Found For The Higgs Boson Direct Decay Into Fermions. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Acquisition Reform: NASA’s Internet Service Improves Access to Contracting Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fetterolf-Klein S. Teacher leadership practices, supports and challenges in implementation of the common core high school math standards. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Jewelry Born Of Child’s Play. New York Times 2010:E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiology Cases
AbbreviationJ. Cardiol. Cases
ISSN (print)1878-5409
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles