How to format your references using the Cirujano General citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cirujano General. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes JA. Ecology. How the Sahara became dry. Science. 2008 May 9;320(5877):752–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collinge J, Clarke AR. A general model of prion strains and their pathogenicity. Science. 2007 Nov 9;318(5852):930–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rasmussen LEL, Riddle HS, Krishnamurthy V. Mellifluous matures to malodorous in musth. Nature. 2002 Feb 28;415(6875):975–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weill M, Lutfalla G, Mogensen K, Chandre F, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, et al. Comparative genomics: Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature. 2003 May 8;423(6936):136–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton W. E-Learning by Design. San Francisco, CA, USA: Pfeiffer; 2011.
An edited book
Hehn E, editor. Exchange Traded Funds: Structure, Regulation and Application of a New Fund Class. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. VIII, 257 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Mukherjee AB, Bhattacharya P, Sarkar A, Zevenhoven R. Mercury emissions from industrial sources in India and its effects in the environment. In: Mason R, Pirrone N, editors. Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Emissions, Measurements and Models. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 81–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cirujano General.

Blog post
Taub B. Does The Length Of Your Fingers Really Reveal How Good Your Directional Sense Is? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Higher Fares and Less Competition Continue at Concentrated Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Jul. Report No.: RCED-93-171.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brient R. Performance considerations for Philippe Gaubert’s “Madrigal” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Forsythe M, Stevenson A. Murky Firm Is Behind A Donation Of $18 Billion. New York Times. 2017 Jul 27;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCirujano General
ISSN (print)1405-0099

Other styles