How to format your references using the Cirujano General citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cirujano General. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson K. Nanotech growing pains. Nature. 2007 Apr 26;446(7139):963.
A journal article with 2 authors
Le Borgne M, Shaw AS. Immunology. Do T cells have a cilium? Science. 2013 Dec 6;342(6163):1177–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Campbell C, Shea K, Albert R. Network models. Comment on “Control profiles of complex networks.” Science. 2014 Oct 31;346(6209):561.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
O’Dowd CD, Aalto P, Hmeri K, Kulmala M, Hoffmann T. Aerosol formation: atmospheric particles from organic vapours. Nature. 2002 Apr 4;416(6880):497–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhurin VV. Industrial Ion Sources. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Steyn-Ross DA, Steyn-Ross M, editors. Modeling Phase Transitions in the Brain. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. XXX, 306 p. 103 illus., 24 illus. in color. (Springer Series in Computational Neuroscience; vol. 4).
A chapter in an edited book
Hodych O, Hushchyn K, Shcherbyna Y, Nikolski I, Pasichnyk V. SOM-Based Dynamic Image Segmentation for Sign Language Training Simulator. In: Yang J, Ginige A, Mayr HC, Kutsche R-D, editors. Information Systems: Modeling, Development, and Integration: Third International United Information Systems Conference, UNISCON 2009, Sydney, Australia, April 21-24, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 29–40. (Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cirujano General.

Blog post
Hale T. The Horrifying Reason For One Woman’s Earache [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Unemployment Insurance: Various Factors Affect Head Start and Other Early Childhood Teachers’ Eligibility for Benefits. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Oct. Report No.: GAO-17-34.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Petrovic V. The K(n)-local E n-Adams Spectral Sequence and a Cohomological Approximation of its E2-term [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. In the End, Conduct Is What Counts. New York Times. 2010 Mar 18;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCirujano General
ISSN (print)1405-0099

Other styles