How to format your references using the Current Diabetes Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Diabetes Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brody H. Biomaterials. Nature. 2015;519:S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gerde E, Marder M. Friction and fracture. Nature. 2001;413:285–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chiou PY, Ohta AT, Wu MC. Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images. Nature. 2005;436:370–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Turra A, Manzano AB, Dias RJS, Mahiques MM, Barbosa L, Balthazar-Silva D, et al. Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy beaches: shifting paradigms. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4435.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Muccini M, Toffanin S. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1. Bernhard P. The Interval Market Model in Mathematical Finance: Game-Theoretic Methods. Engwerda JC, Roorda B, Schumacher JM, Kolokoltsov V, Saint-Pierre P, Aubin J-P, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cristea IA, Stefan S, David O, Mogoase C, Dobrean A. Rational Stories for Children. A Rational Emotive Education Protocol for Approaching Anxiety in Children and Adolescents Based on the Stories Book The Retmagic and Wonderful Adventures of Retman. In: Stefan S, David O, Mogoase C, Dobrean A, editors. REBT in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 69–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Diabetes Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Facebook’s New Data Center in Fort Worth will Give Energy Back to the People of Texas [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Explosives Detection Canines: TSA Has Enhanced Its Canine Program, but Opportunities May Exist to Reduce Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Mar. Report No.: GAO-16-444T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gu P. Advanced Nonlinear Control and Estimation Methods for AC Power Generation Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gondelman J. A Comedian’s Most Important Set. New York Times. 2017 Sep 1;SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Diabetes Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Diab. Rep.
ISSN (print)1534-4827
ISSN (online)1539-0829
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles