How to format your references using the Tobacco Induced Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tobacco Induced Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chiang Y-M. Materials science. Building a better battery. Science. 2010;330:1485–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Euston DR, Steenland HW. Neuroscience. Memories--getting wired during sleep. Science. 2014;344:1087–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F. Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science. 2005;308:1314–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Vastenhouw NL, Brunschwig K, Okihara KL, Müller F, Tijsterman M, Plasterk RHA. Gene expression: long-term gene silencing by RNAi. Nature. 2006;442:882.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Morris A. A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. d’Onofrio A, editor. Bounded Noises in Physics, Biology, and Engineering. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Barnes AJ. Childhood Stress and Resilience. In: Korin MR, editor. Health Promotion for Children and Adolescents. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2016. p. 85–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tobacco Induced Diseases.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Windy Weather Discovered in Young Planetary System [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The SEASAT-A Project: Where It Stands Today. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Sep. Report No.: PSAD-77-126.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ku Y. Dealing with historical issues in Japan and Germany: Ruling coalitions, transnational activism, and conservative reaction [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Solomon BC. In Grim Camps, Desperate Scene for Rohingya. New York Times. 2017 Sep 29;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTobacco Induced Diseases
AbbreviationTob. Induc. Dis.
ISSN (online)1617-9625
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)

Other styles