How to format your references using the Clinical and Vaccine Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (CVI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edlin BR. 2011. Perspective: test and treat this silent killer. Nature 474:S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kershaw MH, Smyth MJ. 2013. Immunology. Making macrophages eat cancer. Science 341:41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen L-Y, Redon S, Lingner J. 2012. The human CST complex is a terminator of telomerase activity. Nature 488:540–544.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Enders D, Hüttl MRM, Grondal C, Raabe G. 2006. Control of four stereocentres in a triple cascade organocatalytic reaction. Nature 441:861–863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D. 2008. The JCT Minor Works Building Contracts 2005. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
2016. Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration Towards Radiobiology and Medicine. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Simari GI, Parsons SD. 2011. A Theoretical Comparison of Models, p. 27–48. In Parsons, SD (ed.), Markov Decision Processes and the Belief-Desire-Intention Model: Bridging the Gap for Autonomous Agents. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2016. US To Lift Ban On Creating Human-Animal Hybrids For Medical Research. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. District of Columbia: Planned Funding and Schedule for D.C. Public Schools’ Modernization Program Are Unrealistic. GAO-02-815R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horton CR. 2013. Financial crisis within the nonprofit sector. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. 2012. State Bonds In Jeopardy As Tobacco Cash Fades. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Vaccine Immunology
AbbreviationClin. Vaccine Immunol.
ISSN (print)1556-6811
ISSN (online)1556-679X
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Immunology and Allergy
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles