How to format your references using the Clinical and Vaccine Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (CVI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Albarède F. 2008. Rogue mantle helium and neon. Science 319:943–945.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Betts JR, Atkinson RC. 2012. Education. Better research needed on the impact of charter schools. Science 335:171–172.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Giribet G, Edgecombe GD, Wheeler WC. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413:157–161.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Baldwin MP, Rhines PB, Huang H-P, McIntyre ME. 2007. Atmospheres. The jet-stream conundrum. Science 315:467–468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Cardon A, Itmi M. 2016. New Autonomous Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1.
2016. The Pillars of the Italian Economy: Manufacturing, Food & Wine, Tourism. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Weresa MA. 2014. Policies Supporting Regional Innovation in Poland in 2014–2020: The European and National Perspective, p. 77–89. In Ambroziak, AA (ed.), New Cohesion Policy of the European Union in Poland: How It Will Influence the Investment Attractiveness of Regions in 2014-2020. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. 2015. Fossil Collecting Should Be For Everyone – Not Just Academics. IFLScience. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Medicare Computer Systems: Year 2000 Challenges Put Benefits and Services in Jeopardy. AIMD-98-284. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
McMiller B. 2010. Policy analysis on the Adoption and Safe Family Act of 1997. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B. 2017. Film Series. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Vaccine Immunology
AbbreviationClin. Vaccine Immunol.
ISSN (print)1556-6811
ISSN (online)1556-679X
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Immunology
Immunology and Allergy
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles