How to format your references using the Clinical and Vaccine Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (CVI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victor D. 2009. Plan B for Copenhagen. Nature 461:342–344.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillips P, Dalidovich D. 2003. The elusive Bose metal. Science 302:243–247.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuasa S, Nagahama T, Suzuki Y. 2002. Spin-polarized resonant tunneling in magnetic tunnel junctions. Science 297:234–237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O’Neil J, Carlson RW, Francis D, Stevenson RK. 2008. Neodymium-142 evidence for Hadean mafic crust. Science 321:1828–1831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henden J. 2011. Beating Combat Stress. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2005. Protocol for Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Harman O. 2012. War or Peace? Huxley and Kropotkin’s Battle Over the Design of Virtue, p. 87–110. In Swan, L, Gordon, R, Seckbach, J (eds.), Origin(s) of Design in Nature: A Fresh, Interdisciplinary Look at How Design Emerges in Complex Systems, Especially Life. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Study Provides Insight Into The Recovery Of Consciousness After Anesthesia. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Rail Transit: Additional Federal Leadership Would Enhance FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program. GAO-06-821. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sweeney DL. 2009. Learning in human -dolphin interactions at zoological facilities. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley G. 2016. Where Everybody Knows Your Name and Accepts Your Politics. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Vaccine Immunology
AbbreviationClin. Vaccine Immunol.
ISSN (print)1556-6811
ISSN (online)1556-679X
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Immunology and Allergy
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles