How to format your references using the Frontiers in Livestock Genomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Livestock Genomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maskin, E. (2008). Economics. Can neural data improve economics? Science 321, 1788–1789.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rella, S. F., and Uchida, M. (2014). A Southern Ocean trigger for Northwest Pacific ventilation during the Holocene? Sci. Rep. 4, 4046.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavine, M., Szuromi, P., and Coontz, R. (2011). Materials for grid energy. Electricity now and when. Introduction. Science 334, 921.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Finer, M., Jenkins, C. N., Sky, M. A. B., and Pine, J. (2014). Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon. Sci. Rep. 4, 4719.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhong, Q.-C., and Hornik, T. (2012). Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rommel, C., Vanhaesebroeck, B., and Vogt, P. K. eds. (2011). Phosphoinositide 3-kinase in Health and Disease: Volume 1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fragiskos, F. D. (2007). “Equipment, Instruments, and Materials,” in Oral Surgery, ed. F. D. Fragiskos (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 43–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Livestock Genomics.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Researchers Link Humans Brains Allowing One To Guess What The Other Is Thinking. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Vehicle Safety: Technologies, Challenges, and Research and Development Expenditures for Advanced Air Bags. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scheepers, E. M. (2014). Psychotherapists’ use of outcome measures in psychotherapy practice: Differences related to academic background.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bulkeley, K. (2013). Data-Mining Our Dreams. New York Times, SR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maskin, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Maskin, 2008; Rella and Uchida, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rella and Uchida, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Finer et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Livestock Genomics
AbbreviationFront. Genet.
ISSN (online)1664-8021
Molecular Medicine

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