How to format your references using the Frontiers in Livestock Genomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Livestock Genomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lander, E. S. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. The accelerator. Science 331, 1024.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wallenfang, M. R., and Matunis, E. (2003). Developmental biology. Orienting stem cells. Science 301, 1490–1491.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tay, Y., Rinn, J., and Pandolfi, P. P. (2014). The multilayered complexity of ceRNA crosstalk and competition. Nature 505, 344–352.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, J., Taylor, D. W., Krementsova, E. B., Trybus, K. M., and Taylor, K. A. (2006). Three-dimensional structure of the myosin V inhibited state by cryoelectron tomography. Nature 442, 208–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mack, I. (2014). Energy Trading and Risk Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hameurlain, A., Küng, J., Wagner, R., and Chen, Q. eds. (2016). Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XXVIII: Special Issue on Database- and Expert-Systems Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Matthews, G., Reinerman-Jones, L., Wohleber, R., Lin, J., Mercado, J., and Abich, J. (2015). “Workload Is Multidimensional, Not Unitary: What Now?,” in Foundations of Augmented Cognition: 9th International Conference, AC 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. D. D. Schmorrow and C. M. Fidopiastis (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 44–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Livestock Genomics.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017). Republican Bill Aims To “Terminate” The Department Of Education. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013). Interstate Compacts: Transparency and Oversight of Bi-State Tolling Authorities Could Be Enhanced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chan, K. (2012). Planned experiences compared to performance standards for entry-level dietetic interns.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2016). AMC Networks Takes Minority Stake in Funny or Die. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lander, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Wallenfang and Matunis, 2003; Lander, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wallenfang and Matunis, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Livestock Genomics
AbbreviationFront. Genet.
ISSN (online)1664-8021
Molecular Medicine

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