How to format your references using the Culture and Religion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Religion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elgersma, Ype. 2015. “Neurodevelopmental Disease: A Molecular Tightrope.” Nature 526 (7571): 50–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Georgianna, D. Ryan, and Stephen P. Mayfield. 2012. “Exploiting Diversity and Synthetic Biology for the Production of Algal Biofuels.” Nature 488 (7411): 329–335.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scales, S. J., M. F. Finley, and R. H. Scheller. 2001. “Cell Biology. Fusion without SNAREs?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5544): 1015–1016.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Loncarek, Jadranka, Olga Kisurina-Evgenieva, Tatiana Vinogradova, Polla Hergert, Sabrina La Terra, Tarun M. Kapoor, and Alexey Khodjakov. 2007. “The Centromere Geometry Essential for Keeping Mitosis Error Free Is Controlled by Spindle Forces.” Nature 450 (7170): 745–749.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fischer, Dena J., Nathaniel S. Treister, and Andres Pinto. 2013. Risk Assessment and Oral Diagnostics in Clinical Dentistry. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brevini, Tiziana A. L. 2013. Pluripotency in Domestic Animal Cells. Edited by Fulvio Gandolfi. SpringerBriefs in Stem Cells. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Selvaggi, Silvia. 2007. “Diritto d’autore in Rete.” In E-Learning: Nuovi Strumenti per Insegnare, Apprendere, Comunicare Online, edited by Silvia Selvaggi, Enrico Vollono, and Gennaro Sicignano, 77–93. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Religion.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “First Results From NASA’s Twins Experiment Surprise Scientists.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Comments on “The Government Can Be More Productive in Collecting Its Debts by Following Commercial Practices.” B-194920. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roediger, Erik. 2015. “Relaxation Skills Training for Elementary Aged Children.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “On Coaching Go-Round, It’s Hop On, And Hold On.” New York Times, March 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elgersma 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Elgersma 2015; Georgianna and Mayfield 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Georgianna and Mayfield 2012)
  • Three authors: (Scales, Finley, and Scheller 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Loncarek et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Religion
AbbreviationCult. Relig.
ISSN (print)1475-5610
ISSN (online)1475-5629
Religious studies
Cultural Studies

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