How to format your references using the Culture and Religion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Religion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young, Larry J. 2009. “Being Human: Love: Neuroscience Reveals All.” Nature 457 (7226): 148.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melbourne, Timothy I., and Frank H. Webb. 2003. “Geophysics. Slow but Not Quite Silent.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5627): 1886–1887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fearon, D. T., P. Manders, and S. D. Wagner. 2001. “Arrested Differentiation, the Self-Renewing Memory Lymphocyte, and Vaccination.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5528): 248–250.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fuchs, G. D., V. V. Dobrovitski, D. M. Toyli, F. J. Heremans, and D. D. Awschalom. 2009. “Gigahertz Dynamics of a Strongly Driven Single Quantum Spin.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5959): 1520–1522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kothari, Vinod. 2008. Credit Derivatives and Structured Credit Trading. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Ratajczak, Mariusz Z., ed. 2014. Adult Stem Cell Therapies: Alternatives to Plasticity. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kreku, Jari, and Kari Tiensyrjä. 2012. “System Exploration.” In Scalable Multi-Core Architectures: Design Methodologies and Tools, edited by Dimitrios Soudris and Axel Jantsch, 107–137. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Religion.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Could This New Clock Redefine The Length Of A Second?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Civil Aviation Research and Development Programs and Facilities. PSAD-76-146. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores, David. 2014. “The EastSide Café: A Liberated Learning Zone.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Candidate’s Record; The Matter of Trust: Clinton’s Big Burden.” New York Times, October 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Young 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Young 2009; Melbourne and Webb 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melbourne and Webb 2003)
  • Three authors: (Fearon, Manders, and Wagner 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fuchs et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Religion
AbbreviationCult. Relig.
ISSN (print)1475-5610
ISSN (online)1475-5629
Religious studies
Cultural Studies

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