How to format your references using the Culture and Religion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Religion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, Caitlin. 2005. “Genomics: Genotyping Gets up to Speed.” Nature 435 (7044): 992.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmitz, Lars, and Ryosuke Motani. 2011. “Nocturnality in Dinosaurs Inferred from Scleral Ring and Orbit Morphology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6030): 705–708.
A journal article with 3 authors
Callier, Viviane, Jennifer A. Clack, and Per E. Ahlberg. 2009. “Contrasting Developmental Trajectories in the Earliest Known Tetrapod Forelimbs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5925): 364–367.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Seki, K., R. C. Elphic, M. Hirahara, T. Terasawa, and T. Mukai. 2001. “On Atmospheric Loss of Oxygen Ions from Earth through Magnetospheric Processes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5510): 1939–1941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison, Andrew. 2016. The Life of D. H. Lawrence. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Whitacre, David M., ed. 2010. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 206. Vol. 206. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Continuation of Residue Reviews. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Slutsker, J., A. L. Roytburd, G. B. McFadden, and J. A. Warren. 2006. “Phase Field Modeling of Solidification and Melting of a Confined Nano-Particle.” In Nanomechanics of Materials and Structures, edited by T-J Chuang, P. M. Anderson, M-K Wu, and S. Hsieh, 33–43. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Religion.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Humans May Have Fewer Viral Fossils Because Our Ancestors Traded Biting For Tools.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1985. Use of the Public Law 94-142 Set-Aside Shows Both the Flexibility Intended by the Law and the Need for Improved Reporting. PEMD-85-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yarijanian, Ararat Alex. 2017. “Cardborigami’s Strategic Business Plan to Address Urban Homelessness.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2015. “Russian Local Elections Draw Charges of Fraud.” New York Times, September 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2005; Schmitz and Motani 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmitz and Motani 2011)
  • Three authors: (Callier, Clack, and Ahlberg 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Seki et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Religion
AbbreviationCult. Relig.
ISSN (print)1475-5610
ISSN (online)1475-5629
Religious studies
Cultural Studies

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