How to format your references using the Culture and Religion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Religion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roos, David S. 2005. “Genetics. Themes and Variations in Apicomplexan Parasite Biology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5731): 72–73.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hupp, Joseph T., and Kenneth R. Poeppelmeier. 2005. “Chemistry. Better Living through Nanopore Chemistry.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5743): 2008–2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, S., P. Evans, and C. Hawkesworth. 2001. “Ultrafast Source-to-Surface Movement of Melt at Island Arcs from 226Ra-230Th Systematics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5520): 1363–1366.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wall, Simon, Shan Yang, Luciana Vidas, Matthieu Chollet, James M. Glownia, Michael Kozina, Tetsuo Katayama, et al. 2018. “Ultrafast Disordering of Vanadium Dimers in Photoexcited VO2.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 362 (6414): 572–576.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lavi, Mohan R. 2016. The Impact of IFRS on Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sun, Xian-He, Wenyu Qu, Ivan Stojmenovic, Wanlei Zhou, Zhiyang Li, Hua Guo, Geyong Min, Tingting Yang, Yulei Wu, and Lei Liu, eds. 2014. Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 14th International Conference, ICA3PP 2014, Dalian, China, August 24-27, 2014. Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 8631. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Izmailov, Igor, Boris Poizner, Ilia Romanov, and Sergey Smolskiy. 2016. “Optical Vortices in Ring and Non-Ring Interferometers and a Model of the Digital Communication System.” In Cryptology Transmitted Message Protection: From Deterministic Chaos up to Optical Vortices, edited by Boris Poizner, Ilia Romanov, and Sergey Smolskiy, 259–332. Signals and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Religion.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Death Star Moon Could Have An Ocean.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Aviation Safety: FAA Needs to Strengthen the Management of Its Designee Programs. GAO-05-40. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guo, Zhihua. 2008. “Experimental Analysis of Polymer Nanocomposite Foaming Using Carbon Dioxide.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, Michael. 2017. “6 Composers Chosen For Miller Portraits.” New York Times, May 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roos 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Roos 2005; Hupp and Poeppelmeier 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hupp and Poeppelmeier 2005)
  • Three authors: (Turner, Evans, and Hawkesworth 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wall et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Religion
AbbreviationCult. Relig.
ISSN (print)1475-5610
ISSN (online)1475-5629
Religious studies
Cultural Studies

Other styles