How to format your references using the Culture and Religion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Religion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dodds, Peter N. 2010. “Plant Science. Genome Evolution in Plant Pathogens.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6010): 1486–1487.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cruz, Georgina, and Graeme Lowe. 2013. “Neural Coding of Binary Mixtures in a Structurally Related Odorant Pair.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Newhall, C. G., J. A. Power, and R. S. Punongbayan. 2002. “Pinatubo Eruption. ‘To Make Grow.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5558): 1241–1242.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Keren, Kinneret, Rotem S. Berman, Evgeny Buchstab, Uri Sivan, and Erez Braun. 2003. “DNA-Templated Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5649): 1380–1382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Degner, Ralf, and Stephanus Leibl. 2005. PH Messen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gellersen, Hans-W, Roy Want, and Albrecht Schmidt, eds. 2005. Pervasive Computing: Third International Conference, PERVASIVE 2005, Munich, Germany, May 8-13, 2005. Proceedings. Vol. 3468. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pelcat, Maxime, Slaheddine Aridhi, Jonathan Piat, and Jean-François Nezan. 2013. “A System-Level Architecture Model.” In Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping: A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE ENodeB, edited by Slaheddine Aridhi, Jonathan Piat, and Jean-François Nezan, 103–121. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Religion.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Running May Boost Connectivity In Your Brain.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Amtrak: Financial Condition Has Deteriorated and Future Costs Make Recovery Difficult. T-RCED-94-155. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sandoval, Victorina. 2013. “Preventing Chronic Truancy among Latino High School Students: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, James L. 1972. “Preserving Our Relevance.” New York Times, September 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dodds 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Dodds 2010; Cruz and Lowe 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cruz and Lowe 2013)
  • Three authors: (Newhall, Power, and Punongbayan 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Keren et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Religion
AbbreviationCult. Relig.
ISSN (print)1475-5610
ISSN (online)1475-5629
Religious studies
Cultural Studies

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