How to format your references using the Mathematical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nakano, H.: Survey of the Japanese coast reveals abundant placozoan populations in the Northern Pacific Ocean. Sci. Rep. 4, 5356 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Righelato, R., Spracklen, D.V.: Environment. Carbon mitigation by biofuels or by saving and restoring forests? Science. 317, 902 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson, J.J., Björnmalm, M., Caruso, F.: Multilayer assembly. Technology-driven layer-by-layer assembly of nanofilms. Science. 348, aaa2491 (2015)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alvarez, B., Martínez-A, C., Burgering, B.M., Carrera, A.C.: Forkhead transcription factors contribute to execution of the mitotic programme in mammals. Nature. 413, 744–747 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, A.E., Geiger, G., Fine, H.A.: Handbook on Material and Energy Balance Calculations in Material Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Sen, S.: Hyper-lattice Algebraic Model for Data Warehousing. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Clunas, C.: Text, Representation and Technique in Early Modern China. In: Chemla, K. (ed.) History of Science, History of Text. pp. 107–121. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2004)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Total Solar Eclipse To Darken Skies Above Europe March 20th,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Propane and Heating Oil: Federal Oversight of the Propane Education and Research Council and National Oilheat Research Alliance Should Be Strengthened. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2010)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Racho, M.O.: Attributes of Asian American senior leaders who have retained their cultural identity and been successful in American corporations, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: justices decline terrorism case of a u.s. citizen, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Sciences
AbbreviationMath. Sci.
ISSN (print)2008-1359
ISSN (online)2251-7456

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