How to format your references using the Mathematical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lichten, M.: Molecular biology. Putting the breaks on meiosis. Science. 350, 913 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Govers, F., Angenent, G.C.: Plant science. Fertility goddesses as Trojan horses. Science. 330, 922–923 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gibbs, K.A., Urbanowski, M.L., Greenberg, E.P.: Genetic determinants of self identity and social recognition in bacteria. Science. 321, 256–259 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Walburger, A., Koul, A., Ferrari, G., Nguyen, L., Prescianotto-Baschong, C., Huygen, K., Klebl, B., Thompson, C., Bacher, G., Pieters, J.: Protein kinase G from pathogenic mycobacteria promotes survival within macrophages. Science. 304, 1800–1804 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrow, E., Boaz, A., Brearley, S., Ross, F.: Handbook of Service User Involvement in Nursing and Healthcare Research. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Maji, P.: Scalable Pattern Recognition Algorithms: Applications in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Li, W.-J., Chen, Y.-S.: Politeness and Effectiveness of English Email Requests: Taiwanese Professors’ Perspectives. In: Chen, Y.-S., Rau, D.-H.V., and Rau, G. (eds.) Email Discourse Among Chinese Using English as a Lingua Franca. pp. 91–111. Springer, Singapore (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Lions Roam Rwanda Again After a 15-Year Absence


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Intermodal Freight Transportation: Combined Rail-Truck Service Offers Public Benefits, but Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmberg, M.B.: Alternative nitrogen for subsequent southern switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production using cool-season legumes, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Ex-Premier’s Real Estate Deal Investigated, (2005)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Sciences
AbbreviationMath. Sci.
ISSN (print)2008-1359
ISSN (online)2251-7456

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