How to format your references using the Mathematical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vogel, J.: Biochemistry. A bacterial seek-and-destroy system for foreign DNA. Science. 344, 972–973 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogers, R.D., Seddon, K.R.: Chemistry. Ionic liquids--solvents of the future? Science. 302, 792–793 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Faller, M., Niederweis, M., Schulz, G.E.: The structure of a mycobacterial outer-membrane channel. Science. 303, 1189–1192 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lefèvre, M., Proietti, E., Jaouen, F., Dodelet, J.-P.: Iron-based catalysts with improved oxygen reduction activity in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Science. 324, 71–74 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pouly, M., Kohlas, J.: Generic Inference. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Hacioglu, Ü., Dincer, H. eds: Managerial Issues in Finance and Banking: A Strategic Approach to Competitiveness. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Prabhu, V.S., Alnaqi, A.A., Brooks, P.C.: The Thermal Characterisation of a Disc Brake Rotor at Reduced Scale with Particular Reference to Pad Aspect Ratio. In: Andreescu, C. and Clenci, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the European Automotive Congress EAEC-ESFA 2015. pp. 51–60. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J.: There Are Now Just Three Wolves Left On Isle Royale


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport Financing: Projects Eligible for Federal Support That May Go Unfunded. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez Gamez, L.I.: New perspectives on the spatial analysis of urban employment distribution and commuting patterns: The cases of Hermosillo and Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.: Hedge Fund Sues to Have Puerto Rico’s Bankruptcy Case Thrown Out, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Sciences
AbbreviationMath. Sci.
ISSN (print)2008-1359
ISSN (online)2251-7456

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