How to format your references using the Crop Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crop Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. 2008. The art of self-defence. Nature 452(7186): 498–500.
A journal article with 2 authors
Faccio, D., and J. Leach. 2013. Applied physics. Ghost imaging in three dimensions. Science 340(6134): 821–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Friedmann, T., O. Rabin, and M.S. Frankel. 2010. Ethics. Gene doping and sport. Science 327(5966): 647–648.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Takahashi, T., S.C. Sutherland, R.A. Feely, and C.E. Cosca. 2003. Decadal variation of the surface water PCO2 in the western and central equatorial Pacific. Science 302(5646): 852–856.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zheng, Y., X. Xu, Z. Xu, J. Wang, and H. Cai. 2017. Metallic Biomaterials. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Filliettaz, L., and S. Billett, editors. 2015. Francophone Perspectives of Learning Through Work: Conceptions, Traditions and Practices. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Guescini, M., L. Stocchi, C. Di Loreto, C. Fatone, P. De Feo, et al. 2007. Molecular Modifications Induced by Physical Exercise: A Significant Role in Disease Prevention. In: Stocchi, V., Feo, P.D., and Hood, D.A., editors, Role of Physical Exercise in Preventing Disease and Improving the Quality of Life. Springer, Milano. p. 83–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crop Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. NASA Takes A Closer Look At An Age-Defying Star. IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. Review of Contract Award for Management of National Center for Research in Vocational Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Ros, K.M. 2008. A content analysis of television ads: Does current practice maximize cognitive processing?

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times: C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin, 2008; Faccio and Leach, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Faccio and Leach, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Takahashi et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrop Science
AbbreviationCrop Sci.
ISSN (print)0011-183X
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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