How to format your references using the Crop Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crop Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Takahashi, T. 2004. Ocean science. The fate of industrial carbon dioxide. Science 305(5682): 352–353.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartung, T., and C. Rovida. 2009. Chemical regulators have overreached. Nature 460(7259): 1080–1081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acar, M., A. Becskei, and A. van Oudenaarden. 2005. Enhancement of cellular memory by reducing stochastic transitions. Nature 435(7039): 228–232.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Garcés-Chávez, V., D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia. 2002. Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam. Nature 419(6903): 145–147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson, A.K. 2014. Fruit and Vegetables. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Pisegna, J.R., editor. 2015. Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo-hao, D., L. Hua, L. Jian-Xia, and F. Jin-Zhi. 2014. Parallel Solver for Hypersonic Flow Based on Block-Structured Grid. In: Li, K., Xiao, Z., Wang, Y., Du, J., and Li, K., editors, Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics: 25th International Conference, ParCFD 2013, Changsha, China, May 20-24, 2013. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 37–53

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crop Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. 3D Printed Bionic Hand Wins Dyson Award. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Follow Through: Lessons Learned From Its Evaluation and Need To Improve Its Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Qian, J. 2006. Characterization of Transcription-independent APC Tumor Suppressor Function in Apoptosis.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Angelos, J. 2017. The Prophet. New York Times: MM46.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Takahashi, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Takahashi, 2004; Hartung and Rovida, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hartung and Rovida, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Garcés-Chávez et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrop Science
AbbreviationCrop Sci.
ISSN (print)0011-183X
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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