How to format your references using the Crop Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crop Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rees, M. 2014. A Longitude Prize for the twenty-first century. Nature 509(7501): 401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pati, A.K., and S.L. Braunstein. 2000. Impossibility of deleting an unknown quantum state. Nature 404(6774): 164–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charlesworth, J.D., T.L. Warren, and M.S. Brainard. 2012. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit. Nature 486(7402): 251–255.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Minot, E.D., Y. Yaish, V. Sazonova, and P.L. McEuen. 2004. Determination of electron orbital magnetic moments in carbon nanotubes. Nature 428(6982): 536–539.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Böhmer, E. 2015. Dentistry in Rabbits and Rodents. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zhang, C., W. Huang, Y. Shi, P.S. Yu, Y. Zhu, et al., editors. 2015. Data Science: Second International Conference, ICDS 2015, Sydney, Australia, August 8-9, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lazzarini, L., S. Luppino, and C.G. Malacrino. 2010. The White and Coloured Marbles of the Roman Theatre of Copia(Cosenza, Italy). In: Dan, M.B., Přikryl, R., and Török, Á., editors, Materials, Technologies and Practice in Historic Heritage Structures. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. p. 71–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crop Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. New DNA Analysis Says Your Pooch’s Ancestors Were Central Asian Wolves. IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Telecommunications: FCC Should Evaluate the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Lifeline Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parajuli, B. 2014. Students’ Motivations towards Volunteerism: A Comparative Study of the United States and Nepal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M., and M. Winerip. 2015. Tunnels, Disguises and Sewers: A Prison’s Inmates Have Found Many Ways to Flee. New York Times: A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rees, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Pati and Braunstein, 2000; Rees, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pati and Braunstein, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Minot et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrop Science
AbbreviationCrop Sci.
ISSN (print)0011-183X
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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