How to format your references using the Critical Studies on Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Studies on Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowler, Peter J. 2009. “Darwin’s Originality.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5911): 223–226.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ransohoff, Richard M., and Astrid E. Cardona. 2010. “The Myeloid Cells of the Central Nervous System Parenchyma.” Nature 468 (7321): 253–262.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krasnoshchekov, Dmitry N., Peter B. Kaazik, and Vladimir M. Ovtchinnikov. 2005. “Seismological Evidence for Mosaic Structure of the Surface of the Earth’s Inner Core.” Nature 435 (7041): 483–487.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Ben, Lu Han, Yingying Duan, Yunayuan Cao, Ji Feng, Yuan Yao, and Shunai Che. 2014. “Growth of Optically Active Chiral Inorganic Films through DNA Self-Assembly and Silica Mineralisation.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4866.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent, Olivier. 2010. IP Telephony. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Abram, Simone, and Katrín Anna Lund, eds. 2016. Green Ice: Tourism Ecologies in the European High North. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Hirvensalo, Mika. 2011. “Quantum Information – A Tutorial.” In Unconventional Computation: 10th International Conference, UC 2011, Turku, Finland, June 6-10, 2011. Proceedings, edited by Cristian S. Calude, Jarkko Kari, Ion Petre, and Grzegorz Rozenberg, 11–13. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Studies on Security.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Google Tracks The Benefit Of Vaccinations.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Tax Systems Modernization: Progress Mixed In Addressing Critical Success Factors. T-IMTEC-92-13. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klimek, Diana Lynn. 2008. “Antigone’s Reach: A Feminine Model for Today’s Businesswoman.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, John. 2016. “Mystery Ends: Date and Venue Are Set for Chess Event.” New York Times, August 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowler 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bowler 2009; Ransohoff and Cardona 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ransohoff and Cardona 2010)
  • Three authors: (Krasnoshchekov, Kaazik, and Ovtchinnikov 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Studies on Security
ISSN (print)2162-4887
ISSN (online)2162-4909

Other styles