How to format your references using the Critical Studies on Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Studies on Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Potocnik, Janez. 2007. “Renewable Energy Sources and the Realities of Setting an Energy Agenda.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5813): 810–811.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng, Wei, and Weikai Li. 2014. “Structural Insights into Ubiquinone Biosynthesis in Membranes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6173): 878–881.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., C. Kloc, and B. Batlogg. 2000. “Superconductivity at 52 K in Hole-Doped C60.” Nature 408 (6812): 549–552.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Buyi, Xinjia Yang, Lingling Xia, Muhammad Irfan Majeed, and Bien Tan. 2013. “Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules.” Scientific Reports 3: 2128.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homer, Sidney, and Martin L. Leibowitz. 2013. Inside the Yield Book. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Droste-Franke, Bert. 2015. Improving Energy Decisions: Towards Better Scientific Policy Advice for a Safe and Secure Future Energy System. Edited by M. Carrier, M. Kaiser, Miranda Schreurs, Christoph Weber, and Thomas Ziesemer. Vol. 42. Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment, Schriftenreihe Der EA European Academy of Technology and Innovation Assessment GmbH. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Illusie, Luc. 2015. “Grothendieck at Pisa: Crystals and Barsotti-Tate Groups.” In Colloquium De Giorgi 2013 and 2014, edited by Umberto Zannier, 79–107. Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Studies on Security.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “The Pacific’s Floating ‘Plastic Continents’ Will Soon Wash Up On Our Shorelines.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Planning Procedures for Computer Resources in the Department of the Interior. FGMSD-77-68. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whittle, Christina M. 2009. “The Genomic Distribution and Function of NFI and Histone Variant H2A.Z during Caenorhabditis Elegans Development.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. 2016. “Back Home, Crashing on a Couch and Dreaming of Rap Greatness.” New York Times, September 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Potocnik 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Potocnik 2007; Cheng and Li 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng and Li 2014)
  • Three authors: (Schön, Kloc, and Batlogg 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Studies on Security
ISSN (print)2162-4887
ISSN (online)2162-4909

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