How to format your references using the Critical Studies on Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Studies on Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pierrehumbert, Raymond T. 2004. “High Levels of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Necessary for the Termination of Global Glaciation.” Nature 429 (6992): 646–649.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartung, Thomas, and Costanza Rovida. 2009. “Chemical Regulators Have Overreached.” Nature 460 (7259): 1080–1081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knigge, Christian, Malcolm J. Coe, and Philipp Podsiadlowski. 2011. “Two Populations of X-Ray Pulsars Produced by Two Types of Supernova.” Nature 479 (7373): 372–375.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gloeckler, G., J. Geiss, N. A. Schwadron, L. A. Fisk, T. H. Zurbuchen, F. M. Ipavich, von Steiger R, H. Balsiger, and B. Wilken. 2000. “Interception of Comet Hyakutake’s Ion Tail at a Distance of 500 Million Kilometres.” Nature 404 (6778): 576–578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lam, James. 2014. Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dallet, Dominique. 2005. Dynamic Characterisation of Analogue-to-Digital Converters. Edited by José Machado da Silva. Vol. 860. The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Sonwani, Saurabh, Pallavi Saxena, and Umesh Kulshrestha. 2016. “Role of Global Warming and Plant Signaling in BVOC Emissions.” In Plant Responses to Air Pollution, edited by Umesh Kulshrestha and Pallavi Saxena, 45–57. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Studies on Security.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “We Get Carsick Because Of A Weird Evolutionary Blip.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Space Surveillance: DOD and NASA Need Consolidated Requirements and a Coordinated Plan. NSIAD-98-42. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meeks, Jack D. 2009. “From the Belly of the HUAC: The HUAC Investigations of Hollywood, 1947–1952.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr. 2017. “24 Years Later, DNA Leads To Arrest in Attack on Girl.” New York Times, May 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pierrehumbert 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Pierrehumbert 2004; Hartung and Rovida 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hartung and Rovida 2009)
  • Three authors: (Knigge, Coe, and Podsiadlowski 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gloeckler et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Studies on Security
ISSN (print)2162-4887
ISSN (online)2162-4909

Other styles