How to format your references using the Critical Studies on Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Studies on Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King, Andrew. 2014. “Astronomy. Testing the Limits of Accretion.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6177): 1318–1319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dutcher, J. R., and M. D. Ediger. 2008. “Materials Science. Glass Surfaces Not so Glassy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5863): 577–578.
A journal article with 3 authors
Leung, Adelaine K. W., Kiyoshi Nagai, and Jade Li. 2011. “Structure of the Spliceosomal U4 SnRNP Core Domain and Its Implication for SnRNP Biogenesis.” Nature 473 (7348): 536–539.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Leidel, Sebastian, Patrick G. A. Pedrioli, Tamara Bucher, Renée Brost, Michael Costanzo, Alexander Schmidt, Ruedi Aebersold, Charles Boone, Kay Hofmann, and Matthias Peter. 2009. “Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Urm1 Acts as a Sulphur Carrier in Thiolation of Eukaryotic Transfer RNA.” Nature 458 (7235): 228–232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Connor, Kieron, and Frederick Aardema. 2011. Clinician’s Handbook for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pla, Laura. 2012. Quantifying Functional Biodiversity. Edited by Fernando Casanoves and Julio Di Rienzo. SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Marinescu, Danut Gabriel, Viorel Nicolae, Cristian Liviu Popescu, Liviu Calin, and Nicusor Mierloiu. 2016. “DUSTER ZERO—Electric Vehicle Research 4WD.” In Proceedings of the European Automotive Congress EAEC-ESFA 2015, edited by Cristian Andreescu and Adrian Clenci, 37–49. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Studies on Security.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Scientists Discovered A Two-Headed Shark.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. National School Lunch Program. 094675. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poudel, Sushil Raj. 2017. “Models and Algorithms to Solve a Reliable and Congested Biomass Supply Chain Network Designing Problem under Uncertainty.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “Puig’s Popularity Reflects Growing Hispanic Interest.” New York Times, August 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King 2014).
This sentence cites two references (King 2014; Dutcher and Ediger 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dutcher and Ediger 2008)
  • Three authors: (Leung, Nagai, and Li 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Leidel et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Studies on Security
ISSN (print)2162-4887
ISSN (online)2162-4909

Other styles