How to format your references using the BMC Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Svejstrup JQ. Transcription. Histones face the FACT. Science. 2003;301:1053–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lipinski C, Hopkins A. Navigating chemical space for biology and medicine. Nature. 2004;432:855–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Efferson C, Lalive R, Fehr E. The coevolution of cultural groups and ingroup favoritism. Science. 2008;321:1844–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wehrens XHT, Lehnart SE, Reiken SR, Deng S-X, Vest JA, Cervantes D, et al. Protection from cardiac arrhythmia through ryanodine receptor-stabilizing protein calstabin2. Science. 2004;304:292–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Campbell CA, Collins M. The One-Page Project Manager for Execution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Ishida H, Tuttle R, Pickford M, Ogihara N, Nakatsukasa M, editors. Human Origins and Environmental Backgrounds. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rose S, van der Laan MJ. Introduction to TMLE. In: Rose S, editor. Targeted Learning: Causal Inference for Observational and Experimental Data. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Imaging.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Why Is Saturn So Bizarrely Hot? IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/space/first-sighting-metallic-hydrogen-may-explain-saturns-heat/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: Engineer Work Shift Length and Schedule Variability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Copeland EJ. A grant proposal for individuals with severe mental illness. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McKINLEY J, Fitzsimmons EG. Ride-Sharing Apps See Potential Upstate. New York Times. 2015;:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Imaging
AbbreviationBMC Med. Imaging
ISSN (online)1471-2342
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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