How to format your references using the BMC Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rylance R. Grant giving: Global funders to focus on interdisciplinarity. Nature. 2015;525:313–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Treacy MMJ, Borisenko KB. The local structure of amorphous silicon. Science. 2012;335:950–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hanada K-I, Yewdell JW, Yang JC. Immune recognition of a human renal cancer antigen through post-translational protein splicing. Nature. 2004;427:252–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang M, Bao W-J, Wang J, Wang K, Xu J-J, Chen H-Y, et al. A green approach to the synthesis of novel “Desert rose stone”-like nanobiocatalytic system with excellent enzyme activity and stability. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6606.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chowdhury S. Optimization and Business Improvement Studies in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Ehrig H, Rensink A, Rozenberg G, Schürr A, editors. Graph Transformations: 5th International Conference, ICGT 2010, Enschede, The Netherlands, September 27–October 2, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Durairajanayagam D, Rengan AK, Sharma RK, Agarwal A. Sperm Biology from Production to Ejaculation. In: Schattman GL, Esteves SC, Agarwal A, editors. Unexplained Infertility: Pathophysiology, Evaluation and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. p. 29–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Imaging.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Meet The Newly Discovered Worm Snail That Thinks It’s Spiderman. IFLScience. 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Proposed Oregon Purchase of Rail Line With Oil Overcharge Settlement]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Noll RT. Physician acceptance of Computerized Physician Order Entry in outpatient settings: A quantitative analysis of family medicine within Maricopa County, Arizona. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. Dominant So Far on Clay, Nadal Hits A Bump on the Road to Roland Garros. New York Times. 2017;:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Imaging
AbbreviationBMC Med. Imaging
ISSN (online)1471-2342
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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