How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. J. C. Hendrix, “Cancer: An extravascular route for tumour cells,” Nature, vol. 520, no. 7547, pp. 300–302, Apr. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. E. Harris and M. Bellino, “IBI* series winner. DNA barcoding from NYC to Belize,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6165, pp. 1462–1463, Dec. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Kuhn, M. Hijri, and I. R. Sanders, “Evidence for the evolution of multiple genomes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6865, pp. 745–748, Dec. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. P. Pang et al., “Induction of human neuronal cells by defined transcription factors,” Nature, vol. 476, no. 7359, pp. 220–223, May 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. A. Pachamanova and F. J. Fabozzi, Portfolio Construction and Analytics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
H. Ross, S. Lee, B. J. Champagne, A. Pigazzi, and D. E. Rivadeneira, Eds., Robotic Approaches to Colorectal Surgery, 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Érsek and Z. Á. Nagy, “Species hybrids in the genus Phytophthora with emphasis on the alder pathogen Phytophthora alni: a review,” in The Downy Mildews - Genetics, Molecular Biology and Control, A. Lebeda, P. T. N. Spencer-Phillips, and B. M. Cooke, Eds., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008, pp. 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Earth-Sized Radio Telescope Spies A Star Falling Into Black Hole,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Overpayment of Title I Funds at the Richmond City Public School System During FY 1978,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 108614, Feb. 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. A. Sparks, “Charismatic leadership: An exploratory investigation of the techniques of influence,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Meier, “Branding Ritual Scarred Women in Secret Circle,” New York Times, p. A1, Oct. 17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Hum. Mach. Syst.
ISSN (print)2168-2291
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Human Factors and Ergonomics

Other styles