How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.-P. Zhang, “Plant science. Signaling to the nucleus with a loaded GUN,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5825, pp. 700–701, May 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Sarkies and E. A. Miska, “Molecular biology. Is there social RNA?,” Science, vol. 341, no. 6145, pp. 467–468, Aug. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Pfleiderer, S. R. Julian, and G. G. Lonzarich, “Non-Fermi-liquid nature of the normal state of itinerant-electron ferromagnets,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6862, pp. 427–430, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Hadjur et al., “Cohesins form chromosomal cis-interactions at the developmentally regulated IFNG locus,” Nature, vol. 460, no. 7253, pp. 410–413, Jul. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Fliszár, Atomic Charges, Bond Properties, and Molecular Energies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
H. O. Otieno, Energy Resources in East Africa: Opportunities and Challenges. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Hahn, “Nicotinic Receptors and Attention,” in The Neurobiology and Genetics of Nicotine and Tobacco, D. J. K. Balfour and M. R. Munafò, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 103–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Earthquake Scientists Have Lost Their Favorite Curb In San Francisco,” IFLScience, 08-Jul-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation Security: Progress Being Made, but Long-term Attention Is Needed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-98-190, May 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Cuellar, “Impact of boring insects on the reproductive success of Hesperoyucca whipplei (Our Lord’s candle),” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Mueller and A. L. Baker, “A Mother Slain on a Playground, a Sea of Witnesses Gone Silent,” New York Times, p. A1, 07-Oct-2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Hum. Mach. Syst.
ISSN (print)2168-2291
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Human Factors and Ergonomics

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