How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. S. Fauci, “Biodefence on the research agenda,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6925, p. 787, Feb. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. R. Milad and G. J. Quirk, “Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6911, pp. 70–74, Nov. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. C. McElwain, J. Wade-Murphy, and S. P. Hesselbo, “Changes in carbon dioxide during an oceanic anoxic event linked to intrusion into Gondwana coals,” Nature, vol. 435, no. 7041, pp. 479–482, May 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Q. Fu, C. M. Johanson, J. M. Wallace, and T. Reichler, “Enhanced mid-latitude tropospheric warming in satellite measurements,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5777, p. 1179, May 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. A. Imbriale, Large Antennas of the Deep Space Network. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
W.-Y. Chen, J. Seiner, T. Suzuki, and M. Lackner, Eds., Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation. New York, NY: Springer US, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
J. I. Lane and R. J. Witte, “Imaging Microscopy of the Temporal Bone: An Anatomy Tutorial,” in The Temporal Bone: An Imaging Atlas, R. J. Witte, Ed., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, pp. 97–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “SpaceX Has Delayed Its First Manned Launch To 2018,” IFLScience, Dec. 14, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Action Needed to Achieve Intended Outcomes,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-15-627, Jul. 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.-J. H. Betito, “Improving the well-being of Filipino homebound adults through religious involvement, education, and socialization: A grant proposal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Healy and S. F. Kovaleski, “One Mother, 7 Dead Newborns and a Stunned Community in Utah,” New York Times, p. A18, Apr. 27, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Hum. Mach. Syst.
ISSN (print)2168-2291
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Human Factors and Ergonomics

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