How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I. Edery, “Circadian rhythms. Temperatures to communicate by,” Science, vol. 330, no. 6002, pp. 329–330, Oct. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. S. Schindler and E. N. Jacobsen, “Chemistry. A new twist on cooperative catalysis,” Science, vol. 340, no. 6136, pp. 1052–1053, May 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. J. Woodward, A. T. Iavarone, and D. A. Portnoy, “c-di-AMP secreted by intracellular Listeria monocytogenes activates a host type I interferon response,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5986, pp. 1703–1705, Jun. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. L. Hudson et al., “Establishing a panel of chemo-resistant mesothelioma models for investigating chemo-resistance and identifying new treatments for mesothelioma,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6152, Aug. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. M. Bolstad and J. M. Curran, Introduction to Bayesian Statistics, Third Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
C. A. Liacouras and J. E. Markowitz, Eds., Eosinophilic Esophagitis, 1st ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Leal Filho and M. Kovaleva, “Methods of Food Waste Reduction,” in Food Waste and Sustainable Food Waste Management in the Baltic Sea Region, M. Kovaleva, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 51–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “How Many Sharks Do Humans Kill Per Hour?,” IFLScience, Aug. 14, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “The Congress Should Clearly Define the National Weather Service’s Role To Provide Specialized Weather Services,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, CED-78-77, Mar. 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. Lieberman, “One yard shy of empowerment: Cinematic portrayals of female athletes,” Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, “On the Home Lawn, Where Alligators Roam,” New York Times, p. LI2, Aug. 12, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Hum. Mach. Syst.
ISSN (print)2168-2291
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Human Factors and Ergonomics

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