How to format your references using the The Ulster Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ulster Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman M. US blood ban underlines CJD fears. Nature. 2001 Jul 5;412(6842):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson EJ, Goldstein D. Medicine. Do defaults save lives? Science. 2003 Nov 21;302(5649):1338–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
DasGupta S, Ferreira CH, Miesenböck G. FoxP influences the speed and accuracy of a perceptual decision in Drosophila. Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):901–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Deechongkit S, Nguyen H, Powers ET, Dawson PE, Gruebele M, Kelly JW. Context-dependent contributions of backbone hydrogen bonding to beta-sheet folding energetics. Nature. 2004 Jul 1;430(6995):101–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaughan D, Robinson N, Lucas N, Arulkumaran S. Handbook of Obstetric High Dependency Care. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Schmerr LW. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Systems: Models and Measurements. Song SJ, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. XV, 602 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu E. Biology Education in China 2000–2010. In: Kim M, Diong CH, editors. Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012. p. 51–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ulster Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Artificial Pancreas Could Be A Life Changer For Type 1 Diabetics. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Additional Information on Implementation of Transportation Regulations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Nov. Report No.: GAO-07-194R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oh Y. Prediction of Steady State Response in Dynamic Mode Atomic Force Microscopy and Its Applications in Nano-metrology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis G. Opera of the Soul, Sparsely Staged. New York Times. 2012 Dec 18;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ulster Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0041-6193

Other styles