How to format your references using the The Ulster Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ulster Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Holmes D. Addiction: 4 big questions. Nature. 2015 Jun 25;522(7557):S63.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gavrilets S, Losos JB. Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science. 2009 Feb 6;323(5915):732–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ash C, Foley J, Pennisi E. Microbial ecology. Lost in microbial space. Special section introduction. Science. 2008 May 23;320(5879):1027.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kapanidis AN, Margeat E, Ho SO, Kortkhonjia E, Weiss S, Ebright RH. Initial transcription by RNA polymerase proceeds through a DNA-scrunching mechanism. Science. 2006 Nov 17;314(5802):1144–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
McMaster MC. HPLC. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1.
Muga G, Ruschhaupt A, Campo A del, editors. Time in Quantum Mechanics - Vol. 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. X, 423 p. (Lecture Notes in Physics; vol. 789).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Beaty B, Woo B. A Superhero Story by Jack Kirby? In: Woo B, editor. The Greatest Comic Book of All Time: Symbolic Capital and the Field of American Comic Books. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. p. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ulster Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. How Chemistry Can Make your Ironing Easier [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/chemistry/how-chemistry-can-make-your-ironing-easier/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Stronger Development Practices and Investment Planning Needed to Address Continuing Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Jul. Report No.: GAO-05-891T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Beck NA. Mobile Apps for Cognitive Restructuring: A Review and Comparative Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J. For a Weekend, ‘Lil D’ on a Jersey and Sinatra on Cleats. New York Times. 2017 Aug 25;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ulster Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0041-6193
Scope

Other styles