How to format your references using the The Ulster Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ulster Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholson DW. From bench to clinic with apoptosis-based therapeutic agents. Nature. 2000 Oct 12;407(6805):810–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cao W, De La Cruz EM. Quantitative full time course analysis of nonlinear enzyme cycling kinetics. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2658.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayya A, Banerjee A, Rajesh R. Mammalian cortical bone in tension is non-Haversian. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2533.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Geddes CGR, Toth CS, Van Tilborg J, Esarey E, Schroeder CB, Bruhwiler D, et al. High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding. Nature. 2004 Sep 30;431(7008):538–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leung M-Y, Chan IYS, Cooper CL. Stress Management in the Construction Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Shimomura Y, Kimita K, editors. The Philosopher’s Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th - 9th, 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XIV, 538 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Ureña-Guerrero ME, Feria-Velasco AI, Gudiño-Cabrera G, Espuny AC, Beas-Zárate C. Modifications in the Seizures Susceptibility by Excitotoxic Neuronal Damage and Its Possible Relationship with the Pharmacoresistance. In: Rocha L, Cavalheiro EA, editors. Pharmacoresistance in Epilepsy: From Genes and Molecules to Promising Therapies. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 59–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ulster Medical Journal.

Blog post
Luntz S. Experiment Provides Further Evidence That Reality Doesn’t Exist Until We Measure It [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: USDA Faces Tremendous Challenges in Ensuring That Vital Public Services Are Not Disrupted. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 May. Report No.: T-AIMD-98-167.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortega S de. The Impact of Outcome Measurement on Non-profit Organizations: A Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M. The Graduates of Walmart Academy. New York Times. 2017 Aug 8;A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ulster Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0041-6193

Other styles