How to format your references using the The Ulster Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ulster Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gates BD. Materials science. Flexible electronics. Science. 2009 Mar 20;323(5921):1566–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gatenby RA, Maini PK. Mathematical oncology: cancer summed up. Nature. 2003 Jan 23;421(6921):321.
A journal article with 3 authors
Männikkö R, Elinder F, Larsson HP. Voltage-sensing mechanism is conserved among ion channels gated by opposite voltages. Nature. 2002 Oct 24;419(6909):837–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
How GTS, Pandikumar A, Ming HN, Ngee LH. Highly exposed {001} facets of titanium dioxide modified with reduced graphene oxide for dopamine sensing. Sci Rep. 2014 May 23;4:5044.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Šolín P. Partial Differential Equations and the Finite Element Method. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Sáez M, editor. Same Sex Couples - Comparative Insights on Marriage and Cohabitation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. VIII, 208 p. (Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice; vol. 42).
A chapter in an edited book
Massone C, Nunzi E. Pathogenesis. In: Nunzi E, Massone C, editors. Leprosy: A Practical Guide. Milano: Springer; 2012. p. 39–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ulster Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Don’t Fall For The Deep-Sea Scaremongers – Wild Fishing Is Healthy And Sustainable [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Protest Alleging Agency Refused To Consider Bid. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Oct. Report No.: B-178984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gornto JS. The impact of student leadership in classroom management on student achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. A Rail Terminal With Flair and Grandeur Is a Survivor. New York Times. 2016 Oct 1;A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ulster Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0041-6193

Other styles