How to format your references using the The Ulster Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ulster Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmichael M. Drug safety: double jeopardy. Nature. 2013 Jun 27;498(7455):S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones-Smith K, Mathur H. Fractal Analysis: revisiting Pollock’s drip paintings. Nature. 2006 Nov 30;444(7119):E9-10; discussion E10-11.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berkhout J, Teusink B, Bruggeman FJ. Gene network requirements for regulation of metabolic gene expression to a desired state. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1417.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Merchant RR, Edwards JT, Qin T, Kruszyk MM, Bi C, Che G, et al. Modular radical cross-coupling with sulfones enables access to sp3-rich (fluoro)alkylated scaffolds. Science. 2018 Apr 6;360(6384):75–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krings A, Braham RR. Guide to Tendrillate Climbers of Costa Rican Mountains. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; 2008.
An edited book
Petersen TJ, E. Sprich S, Wilhelm S, editors. The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. 1st ed. 2016. New York, NY: Springer; 2016. XII, 327 p. 25 illus., 1 illus. in color. (Current Clinical Psychiatry).
A chapter in an edited book
Zerbe I, Gajovic-Eichelmann N. Lipidic Microbubble Targeting of Surface Proteins Using an in Vitro System. In: Paradossi G, Pellegretti P, Trucco A, editors. Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Targeting and Processing Methods for Theranostics. Milano: Springer; 2010. p. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ulster Medical Journal.

Blog post
Davis J. Wild Birds And Humans Talk To Each Other To Team Up And Find Honey [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Should Assess the Design of the E-rate Program’s Internal Control Structure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Sep. Report No.: GAO-10-908.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wen J. Moving office document processing into the cloud [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. The Joy of a “Girl Racer” and a Wish for More. New York Times. 1998 Aug 23;810.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ulster Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0041-6193

Other styles