How to format your references using the Critical Discourse Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Discourse Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davidson, E. H. (2010). Emerging properties of animal gene regulatory networks. Nature, 468(7326), 911–920.
A journal article with 2 authors
Magnus, D., & Cho, M. K. (2005). Ethics. Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5729), 1747–1748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turalska, M., West, B. J., & Grigolini, P. (2013). Role of committed minorities in times of crisis. Scientific Reports, 3, 1371.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hsieh, C.-H., Glaser, S. M., Lucas, A. J., & Sugihara, G. (2005). Distinguishing random environmental fluctuations from ecological catastrophes for the North Pacific Ocean. Nature, 435(7040), 336–340.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells, J. T. (2017). Corporate Fraud Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lundh Snis, U. (Ed.). (2016). Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 7th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2016 and IFIP8.6 2016, Ljungskile, Sweden, August 7-10, 2016, Proceedings (Vol. 259). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Winkler, D., Biffl, S., & Faderl, K. (2010). Investigating the Temporal Behavior of Defect Detection in Software Inspection and Inspection-Based Testing. In M. Ali Babar, M. Vierimaa, & M. Oivo (Eds.), Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 11th International Conference, PROFES 2010, Limerick, Ireland, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 17–31). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Discourse Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, February 1). Brain-Computer Interface Allows Locked-In Patients To Communicate. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Southern California and Participating Schools in Los Angeles and Riverside Counties (B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Branch, J. (2017). A Case Study of Perceptions and Experiences among African-American Males Regarding College Dropout Rates in a Community College [Doctoral dissertation]. Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, May 27). The Mayors Slept Here: Gracie Mansion Is Just the Latest. New York Times, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davidson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Davidson, 2010; Magnus & Cho, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Magnus & Cho, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Turalska et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hsieh et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Discourse Studies
AbbreviationCrit. Discourse Stud.
ISSN (print)1740-5904
ISSN (online)1740-5912
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences

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