How to format your references using the Critical Discourse Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Discourse Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N. (2011). Fuel options: The ideal biofuel. Nature, 474(7352), S9-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rainey, P. B., & Rainey, K. (2003). Evolution of cooperation and conflict in experimental bacterial populations. Nature, 425(6953), 72–74.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bar-Yam, Y., Harmon, D., & de Bivort, B. (2009). Systems biology. Attractors and democratic dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917), 1016–1017.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lopert, A., Rijavec, M., Zavbi, M., Korošec, P., & Fležar, M. (2013). Asthma treatment outcome in adults is associated with rs9910408 in TBX21 gene. Scientific Reports, 3, 2915.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, T. J. (2015). The Value of Debt in Retirement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hidy, G. M., Brook, J. R., Demerjian, K. L., Molina, L. T., Pennell, W. T., & Scheffe, R. D. (Eds.). (2011). Technical Challenges of Multipollutant Air Quality Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Morrison, H. (2016). Writing and Daydreaming. In F. Callard, K. Staines, & J. Wilkes (Eds.), The Restless Compendium: Interdisciplinary Investigations of Rest and Its Opposites (pp. 27–34). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Discourse Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 28). Testing Ancient Human Hearing Via Fossilized Ear Bones. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comments on the National Plan for Information Systems Protection (No. T-AIMD-00-72). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A. C. (2012). The lived experience of the adult African American female who has lived in multiple foster care placements (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2007, January 7). Spanish Cuisine (From Scratch). New York Times, p. NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Rainey & Rainey, 2003; Savage, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rainey & Rainey, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Bar-Yam, Harmon, & de Bivort, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lopert, Rijavec, Zavbi, Korošec, & Fležar, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Discourse Studies
AbbreviationCrit. Discourse Stud.
ISSN (print)1740-5904
ISSN (online)1740-5912
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences

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