How to format your references using the Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Moving targets. Nature. 2003;423:1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. McCollom TM, Hynek BM. A volcanic environment for bedrock diagenesis at Meridiani Planum on Mars. Nature. 2005;438:1129–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Charnoz S, Salmon J, Crida A. The recent formation of Saturn’s moonlets from viscous spreading of the main rings. Nature. 2010;465:752–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jenner L, Romby P, Rees B, Schulze-Briese C, Springer M, Ehresmann C, et al. Translational operator of mRNA on the ribosome: how repressor proteins exclude ribosome binding. Science. 2005;308:120–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smith IM, Griffiths DV, Margetts L. Programming the Finite Element Method. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Hetnarski RB. Thermal Stresses – Advanced Theory and Applications. Eslami MR, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lynch ED, Kil J, Le Prell CG. Development of Drugs for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. In: Le Prell CG, Lobarinas E, Popper AN, Fay RR, editors. Translational Research in Audiology, Neurotology, and the Hearing Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 105–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Care.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Great White Sharks In South Africa Close To Local Extinction [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FTS 2000: An Overview of the Federal Government’s New Telecommunications System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Feb. Report No.: IMTEC-90-17FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cao L. Mathematical Modeling of Long-Term Productivity of Hydraulic- and HEG- Fractured Wells in Ultra-Low Permeability Reservoirs [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. A Playwright Intent on Naming, and Goading, the Beast Within. New York Times. 2016 Sep 17;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Care
AbbreviationCrit. Care
ISSN (online)1364-8535
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
General Medicine

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