How to format your references using the Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lister AM. The role of behaviour in adaptive morphological evolution of African proboscideans. Nature. 2013;500:331–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Allen MR, Stainforth DA. Towards objective probabalistic climate forecasting. Nature. 2002;419:228.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dahl JE, Liu SG, Carlson RMK. Isolation and structure of higher diamondoids, nanometer-sized diamond molecules. Science. 2003;299:96–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gaudier M, Schuwirth BS, Westcott SL, Wigley DB. Structural basis of DNA replication origin recognition by an ORC protein. Science. 2007;317:1213–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chu L-Y, Wang W. Microfluidics for Advanced Functional Polymeric Materials. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
1. Kalviainen H, Parkkinen J, Kaarna A, editors. Image Analysis: 14th Scandinavian Conference, SCIA 2005, Joensuu, Finland, June 19-22, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Miftahof RN, Nam HG. Continual Model of the Detrusor. In: Nam HG, editor. Biomechanics of the Human Urinary Bladder. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 73–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Care.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Being In Nature Benefits Health - But How? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/being-nature-benefits-health-how/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Examination of NASA Contract With Boeing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Jul. Report No.: B-171977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lopez C. A community-based outreach program for Latinos in Los Angeles County supporting mental health awareness and treatment: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Corkery M. Deep Debt and Rivals Push Toy Chain Into Bankruptcy. New York Times. 2017 Sep 19;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Care
AbbreviationCrit. Care
ISSN (online)1364-8535
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
General Medicine

Other styles