How to format your references using the Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Glick S. Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-2011). Nature. 2011;474:580.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mellars P, French JC. Tenfold population increase in Western Europe at the Neandertal-to-modern human transition. Science. 2011;333:623–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cortright RD, Davda RR, Dumesic JA. Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water. Nature. 2002;418:964–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Boothroyd CE, Dreesen O, Leonova T, Ly KI, Figueiredo LM, Cross GAM, et al. A yeast-endonuclease-generated DNA break induces antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei. Nature. 2009;459:278–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kovalev VA. Solutions in Lidar Profiling of the Atmosphere. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Li W. Echocardiography in Adult Congenital Heart Disease. Henein M, Gatzoulis MA, editors. London: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gonzalez A. Is There a Link Between Hispanics and First-Generation College Students? The Importance of Exposure to a College-Going Tradition. In: Leal DL, Trejo SJ, editors. Latinos and the Economy: Integration and Impact in Schools, Labor Markets, and Beyond. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 95–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Care.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Genetically Modified Immune Cells Protect Against HIV [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Problems and Outlook of Small Private Liberal Arts Colleges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Aug. Report No.: HRD-78-91.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Banuelos J. Deficit irrigation of bermudagrass and seashore paspalum for golf course turf [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barnard A, Saad H, Hubbard B. Thousands of Residents Still Trapped in Aleppo as Evacuations Break Down. New York Times. 2016 Dec 16;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Care
AbbreviationCrit. Care
ISSN (online)1364-8535
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
General Medicine

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