How to format your references using the BMC Cardiovascular Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wickware P. Fields of dreams. Nature. 2002;415:4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hellman A, Chess A. Gene body-specific methylation on the active X chromosome. Science. 2007;315:1141–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lamas-Linares A, Howell JC, Bouwmeester D. Stimulated emission of polarization-entangled photons. Nature. 2001;412:887–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dhar RS, Razavipour SG, Dupont E, Xu C, Laframboise S, Wasilewski Z, et al. Direct nanoscale imaging of evolving electric field domains in quantum structures. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Alacoque JC. Direct Eigen Control for Induction Machines and Synchronous Motors. Chichester, UK: A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Poston DL Jr, Yang WS, Farris DN, editors. The Family and Social Change in Chinese Societies. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Strobel J, Tillberg-Webb H. Applying a Critical and Humanizing Framework of Instructional Technologies to Educational Practice. In: Moller L, Huett JB, Harvey DM, editors. Learning and Instructional Technologies for the 21st Century: Visions of the Future. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 1–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Cardiovascular Disorders.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Why Did Dinosaurs Evolve Feathers Long Before Flight? IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/why-did-dinosaurs-evolve-colorful-feathers-long-flight/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sripinit T. How Much Do We Understand About Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy? Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Montague J. Caution: Team Under Construction. New York Times. 2017;:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Cardiovascular Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Cardiovasc. Disord.
ISSN (online)1471-2261
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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