How to format your references using the BMC Cardiovascular Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wagner M. Microbiology: Conductive consortia. Nature. 2015;526:513–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zimmerberg J, Chernomordik LV. Neuroscience. Synaptic membranes bend to the will of a neurotoxin. Science. 2005;310:1626–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. London AJ, Kimmelman J, Emborg ME. Research ethics. Beyond access vs. protection in trials of innovative therapies. Science. 2010;328:829–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang Y, Ono S, Onose Y, Gu G, Ando Y, Tokura Y, et al. Dependence of upper critical field and pairing strength on doping in cuprates. Science. 2003;299:86–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. van Etten WC. Introduction to Random Signals and Noise. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Favini A. Degenerate Nonlinear Diffusion Equations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Issa T, Isaias P. Color, Prototyping and Navigation, Principles and Guidelines Design, Evaluation and Testing; Task Analysis. In: Isaias P, editor. Sustainable Design: HCI, Usability and Environmental Concerns. London: Springer; 2015. p. 71–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Cardiovascular Disorders.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Solar Plane Is About To Embark On A Round-The-World Trip. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Test and Evaluation: DOD Has Been Slow In Improving Testing of Software-Intensive Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dias J. Factors associated with poor oral health among older adults. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Gordon MR. Iran’s Master Of Iraq Chaos Still Vexes U.S. New York Times. 2012;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Cardiovascular Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Cardiovasc. Disord.
ISSN (online)1471-2261
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles