How to format your references using the BMC Cardiovascular Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Parks JE 2nd. Chemistry. Less costly catalysts for controlling engine emissions. Science. 2010;327:1584–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gaffney KJ, Chapman HN. Imaging atomic structure and dynamics with ultrafast x-ray scattering. Science. 2007;316:1444–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Post DM, Pace ML, Hairston NG Jr. Ecosystem size determines food-chain length in lakes. Nature. 2000;405:1047–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Karski M, Förster L, Choi J-M, Steffen A, Alt W, Meschede D, et al. Quantum walk in position space with single optically trapped atoms. Science. 2009;325:174–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. CCPS. Safe Design and Operation of Process Vents and Emission Control Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Maehle E, Römer K, Karl W, Tovar E, editors. Architecture of Computing Systems – ARCS 2014: 27th International Conference, Lübeck, Germany, February 25-28, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mccloud JS. “Were You There?” In: Tilley-Lubbs GA, Calva SB, editors. Re-Telling Our Stories: Critical Autoethnographic Narratives. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016. p. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Cardiovascular Disorders.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Watch Live Webcast of Second Total Lunar Eclipse of 2014. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DFAS Telecommunications: DFAS Has the Opportunity To Reduce Its Telecommunication Line Capacity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Grether S. All You Need is Love? An Examination of Interracial Divorce. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Look Back. New York Times. 2015;:C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Cardiovascular Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Cardiovasc. Disord.
ISSN (online)1471-2261
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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