How to format your references using the Parasite Epidemiology and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasite Epidemiology and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manchester, R.N., 2004. Observational properties of pulsars. Science 304, 542–546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiersma, D.S., Cavalieri, S., 2001. Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser. Nature 414, 708–709.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richard, D., Clanet, C., Quéré, D., 2002. Contact time of a bouncing drop. Nature 417, 811.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bock-Marquette, I., Saxena, A., White, M.D., Dimaio, J.M., Srivastava, D., 2004. Thymosin beta4 activates integrin-linked kinase and promotes cardiac cell migration, survival and cardiac repair. Nature 432, 466–472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dasgupta, A., 2012. Resolving Erroneous Reports in Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Yolum, P., Güngör, T., Gürgen, F., Özturan, C. (Eds.), 2005. Computer and Information Sciences - ISCIS 2005: 20th International Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, October 26-28, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Woollett, N., 2016. Adolescents Living with HIV: Emerging Issues in Public Health in South Africa, in: Liamputtong, P. (Ed.), Children and Young People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, Cross-Cultural Research in Health, Illness and Well-Being. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 65–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasite Epidemiology and Control.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Trace The Origins Of The Last Two HIV-1 Groups [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Computer Misuse by the Sigma Corporation, a NASA Contractor (No. PSAD-78-148). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bakirci, A., 2010. Proteomic analysis of hepatocyte proteins in response to in vivo iron overload (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Of Horns and Whines And the Humble Earplug. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manchester, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Manchester, 2004; Wiersma and Cavalieri, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wiersma and Cavalieri, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bock-Marquette et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasite Epidemiology and Control
AbbreviationParasite Epidemiol. Control
ISSN (print)2405-6731

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