How to format your references using the Parasite Epidemiology and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasite Epidemiology and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan, H., 2001. Biology moves into the silicon stage. Nature 409, 964.
A journal article with 2 authors
Plaçais, P.-Y., Preat, T., 2013. To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory. Science 339, 440–442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davis, S.P., Finarelli, J.A., Coates, M.I., 2012. Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature 486, 247–250.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kanungo, M., Lu, H., Malliaras, G.G., Blanchet, G.B., 2009. Suppression of metallic conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes by cycloaddition reactions. Science 323, 234–237.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Worth, S.M., 2010. The Association Guide to Going Global. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kuhn, D., 2011. Expert Indexing in Oracle Database 11g: Maximum Performance for Your Database. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Craven, M.P., Selvarajah, K., Miles, R., Schnädelbach, H., Massey, A., Vedhara, K., Raine-Fenning, N., Crowe, J., 2013. User Requirements for the Development of Smartphone Self-reporting Applications in Healthcare, in: Kurosu, M. (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 36–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasite Epidemiology and Control.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Arctic Warming Shrinks Birds With A Price To Pay In Tropics [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Research and Development and the Economy (No. 094660). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schwartz, D.A., 2017. Safe Travels? An Examination of the Search and Rescue Policies and Capabilities in the Northwest Passage Region (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Despite Security Measures, Concert Arenas Present ‘Target-Rich’ Environments. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan, 2001; Plaçais and Preat, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Plaçais and Preat, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kanungo et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasite Epidemiology and Control
AbbreviationParasite Epidemiol. Control
ISSN (print)2405-6731

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