How to format your references using the Parasite Epidemiology and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasite Epidemiology and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parham, P., 2003. Innate immunity: The unsung heroes. Nature 423, 20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khoury, M.J., Ioannidis, J.P.A., 2014. Medicine. Big data meets public health. Science 346, 1054–1055.
A journal article with 3 authors
Viswanathan, S.R., Daley, G.Q., Gregory, R.I., 2008. Selective blockade of microRNA processing by Lin28. Science 320, 97–100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tilman, D., Cassman, K.G., Matson, P.A., Naylor, R., Polasky, S., 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418, 671–677.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonald, T., Feuillet, M., 2011. Network Performance Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Martin, M.J., Beekley, A.C. (Eds.), 2011. Front Line Surgery: A Practical Approach. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sorensen, K.A., Mohankumar, S., Thangaraj, S.R., 2016. Physical, Mechanical and Cultural Control of Vegetable Insects, in: Muniappan, R., Heinrichs, E.A. (Eds.), Integrated Pest Management of Tropical Vegetable Crops. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 131–148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasite Epidemiology and Control.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Can Crows Be Trained To Pick Up Litter? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Immigrant Education: Federal Funding Has Not Kept Pace With Student Increases (No. T-HEHS-94-146). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curry, M., 2012. Students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship at a historically black university in central Mississippi (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J.F., 2016. Regular Investing Smooths the Market’s Ups and Downs. New York Times BU14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parham, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Khoury and Ioannidis, 2014; Parham, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khoury and Ioannidis, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Tilman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasite Epidemiology and Control
AbbreviationParasite Epidemiol. Control
ISSN (print)2405-6731

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