How to format your references using the Parasite Epidemiology and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasite Epidemiology and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A., 2000. European space panel picks new priorities. Nature 407, 277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carvalho, A.B., Clark, A.G., 2005. Y chromosome of D. pseudoobscura is not homologous to the ancestral Drosophila Y. Science 307, 108–110.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Groenigen, K.J., Osenberg, C.W., Hungate, B.A., 2011. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 475, 214–216.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Billas, I.M.L., Iwema, T., Garnier, J.-M., Mitschler, A., Rochel, N., Moras, D., 2003. Structural adaptability in the ligand-binding pocket of the ecdysone hormone receptor. Nature 426, 91–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn, G., 2005. HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Montani, S., Jain, L.C. (Eds.), 2010. Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications - I, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Otero, P.G., 2006. Using Natural Alignment to Extract Translation Equivalents, in: Vieira, R., Quaresma, P., Nunes, M. das G.V., Mamede, N.J., Oliveira, C., Dias, M.C. (Eds.), Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language: 7th International Workshop, PROPOR 2006, Itatiaia, Brazil, May 13-17, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 41–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasite Epidemiology and Control.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Does Eating Bamboo Make It Harder For Pandas To Reproduce [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Questions Remain on the Costs, Uses, and Risks of the Redesigned Space Station (No. T-NSIAD-91-26). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fair, C.L., 2012. Structure of the Roberts Mountains allochthon in the Three Bar Ranch Quadrangle, Roberts Mountains, Eureka County, Nevada (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2013. A Roof Is Planned, but It’s a Waiting Game for Fans and Players. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2000; Carvalho and Clark, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carvalho and Clark, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Billas et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasite Epidemiology and Control
AbbreviationParasite Epidemiol. Control
ISSN (print)2405-6731

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