How to format your references using the Information Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L.Y. Stein, Microbiology: Cyanate fuels the nitrogen cycle, Nature. 524 (2015) 43–44.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Jetz, C. Rahbek, Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness, Science. 297 (2002) 1548–1551.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.A. Scott, M.S. Avidan, C.M. Crowder, Regulation of hypoxic death in C. elegans by the insulin/IGF receptor homolog DAF-2, Science. 296 (2002) 2388–2391.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Meissle, J. Zünd, M. Waldburger, J. Romeis, Development of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on pollen from Bt-transgenic and conventional maize, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5900.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.M. Griffin, H.B. Nembhard, C.J. DeFlitch, N.D. Bastian, H. Kang, D.A. Muñoz, Healthcare Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
D. Kratsch, ed., Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 31st International Workshop, WG 2005, Metz, France, June 23-25, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
C.D. Bocaniala, J. Sá da Costa, A Fuzzy Classification Technique Applied to Fault Diagnosis, in: V. Palade, L. Jain, C.D. Bocaniala (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Fault Diagnosis, Springer, London, 2006: pp. 105–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing Letters.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Enormous Helium Discovery Could End Shortage, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Use of Construction Authority by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.M. Garcia, Cutting a thorn: The cleansing function of female genital cutting, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, After 2 Helmets Are Decertified, Lacrosse Faces Safety Concerns, New York Times. (2014) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing Letters
AbbreviationInf. Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)0020-0190
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Theoretical Computer Science

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