How to format your references using the Information Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Catania, The shocking predatory strike of the electric eel, Science. 346 (2014) 1231–1234.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Morata, G. Struhl, Developmental biology: Tethered wings, Nature. 505 (2014) 162–163.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.E. Irwin, S. Bensch, T.D. Price, Speciation in a ring, Nature. 409 (2001) 333–337.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Kodambaka, S.V. Khare, W. Swiech, K. Ohmori, I. Petrov, J.E. Greene, Dislocation-driven surface dynamics on solids, Nature. 429 (2004) 49–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Pischella, D. Le Ruyet, Digital Communications 2, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
D.J. Bell, S.L. Foster, E.J. Mash, eds., Handbook of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Girls, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
W.A. Adkins, M.G. Davidson, Linear Constant Coefficient Differential Equations, in: M.G. Davidson (Ed.), Ordinary Differential Equations, Springer, New York, NY, 2012: pp. 275–329.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New Solar Farm Produces Enough Electricity for 140,000 Homes, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Consumer Finance: Factors Affecting the Financial Literacy of Individuals with Limited English Proficiency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.M. Chavez, A quasi-experimental study of the relationship between school structure and student outcomes, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Blast In Dagestan Kills 3, New York Times. (2005) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing Letters
AbbreviationInf. Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)0020-0190
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Theoretical Computer Science

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