How to format your references using the Information Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Dalton, Arizona institute names leader, Nature. 423 (2003) 6.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.H. Feinberg, C.P. Hunter, Transport of dsRNA into cells by the transmembrane protein SID-1, Science. 301 (2003) 1545–1547.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Chen, O. Zhuchenko, A. Kuspa, Immune-like phagocyte activity in the social amoeba, Science. 317 (2007) 678–681.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.H. Petersen, K. Zou, J.K. Hwang, Y.N. Jan, W. Zhong, Progenitor cell maintenance requires numb and numblike during mouse neurogenesis, Nature. 419 (2002) 929–934.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Zecchina, S. Califano, The Development of Catalysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2017.
An edited book
J.G. Backhaus, ed., The Liberation of the Serfs: The Economics of Unfree Labor, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Cvetkovic, H. Abdullah, R. Chaparro-Vargas, A Review of Methods to Characterize and Classify Sleep, Depression and Schizophrenia Disorders, in: S. Adibi (Ed.), Mobile Health: A Technology Road Map, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 77–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing Letters.

Blog post
J. Fang, Scientists Find Evidence of Spin Symmetry in Atoms, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA Procurement: Competition for Major Data-Processing Project Was Unjustifiably Limited, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Hill, Classical three-body systems and the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, Stranger Than Reality?, New York Times. (2017) BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing Letters
AbbreviationInf. Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)0020-0190
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Theoretical Computer Science

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