How to format your references using the Information Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Suresh, Research funding: Global challenges need global solutions, Nature. 490 (2012) 337–338.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.S. Dawkins, A. Woodington, Pattern recognition and active vision in chickens, Nature. 403 (2000) 652–655.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.L. Ferrier, K.L. Huppert, J.T. Perron, Climatic control of bedrock river incision, Nature. 496 (2013) 206–209.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Perlo, V. Demas, F. Casanova, C.A. Meriles, J. Reimer, A. Pines, B. Blümich, High-resolution NMR spectroscopy with a portable single-sided sensor, Science. 308 (2005) 1279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Machin, M.J. Campbell, Design of Studies for Medical Research, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
E. Tambouris, A. Macintosh, O. Glassey, eds., Electronic Participation: Second IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 29 – September 2, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Weismayer, I. Pezenka, W. Loibl, Automated Hyperlink Text Analysis of City Websites: Projected Image Representation on the Web, in: A. Inversini, R. Schegg (Eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2016: Proceedings of the International Conference in Bilbao, Spain, February 2-5, 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Dark Energy May Be Consuming Dark Matter, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Freight Rail Security: Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Security, but the Federal Strategy Can Be Strengthened and Security Efforts Better Monitored, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.D. Mathes, Exploring Factors That Enabled Financial Advisors and Their Firms to Improve Professional Performance After 2008, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Fernandez, R. Pérez-Peña, D. Montgomery, For Human Cargo, Truck Door Closed Out the Light, and Life, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing Letters
AbbreviationInf. Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)0020-0190
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles