How to format your references using the Information Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Cook-Deegan, Patent law. Law and science collide over human gene patents, Science. 338 (2012) 745–747.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Chilingarian, I. Zolotukhin, Galaxy evolution. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: stellar systems that ran away, Science. 348 (2015) 418–421.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Ebel, L. Mariconti, W. Gruissem, Plant retinoblastoma homologues control nuclear proliferation in the female gametophyte, Nature. 429 (2004) 776–780.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Jonietz, S. Mühlbauer, C. Pfleiderer, A. Neubauer, W. Münzer, A. Bauer, T. Adams, R. Georgii, P. Böni, R.A. Duine, K. Everschor, M. Garst, A. Rosch, Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities, Science. 330 (2010) 1648–1651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Bowen, Children’s Speech Sound Disorders, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
A. Abraham, R. Falcón, R. Bello, eds., Rough Set Theory: A True Landmark in Data Analysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Floreddu, F. Cabiddu, D. Pettinao, Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making: The Case of PPGIS, in: A. D’Atri, M. Ferrara, J.F. George, P. Spagnoletti (Eds.), Information Technology and Innovation Trends in Organizations: ItAIS: The Italian Association for Information Systems, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing Letters.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Two Comets For New Year’s Eve, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Metropolitan Area Acquisition (MAA) Implementation Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.R. Dzubaty, Understanding the undergraduate experience of the baccalaureate nursing student with English as an additional language, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pols, Down East Downers, New York Times. (2015) BR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing Letters
AbbreviationInf. Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)0020-0190
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Theoretical Computer Science

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