How to format your references using the Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.S. Ruoff, Journal club. A physical chemist is excited by the electronic potential of a new arrangement of carbon sheets, Nature. 463 (2010) 853.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Heinze, U. Homberg, Maplike representation of celestial E-vector orientations in the brain of an insect, Science. 315 (2007) 995–997.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.N. Head, H.J. Melosh, B.A. Ivanov, Martian meteorite launch: high-speed ejecta from small craters, Science. 298 (2002) 1752–1756.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Kwong, J. Li, Z. Fan, X. Deng, G. Tang, All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures: geometrical properties, current rectification, and current amplification, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2575.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.W. Sue, Overcoming Our Racism, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
U. Marti, ed., Gravity, Geoid and Height Systems: Proceedings of the IAG Symposium GGHS2012, October 9-12, 2012, Venice, Italy, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
I.C. Jofré Luna, The Mark of the Indian Still Inhabits Our Body: On Ethics and Disciplining in South American Archaeology, in: A. Haber, N. Shepherd (Eds.), After Ethics: Ancestral Voices and Post-Disciplinary Worlds in Archaeology, Springer, New York, NY, 2015: pp. 55–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications.

Blog post
J. Davis, Chernobyl May Be Turned Into A Solar Farm, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: States’ Collection and Use of Funds for Wireless Enhanced 911 Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Donohue, Resolving Past Liabilities for Future Reduction in Greenhouse Gases; Nuclear Energy and the Outstanding Federal Liability of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Rutenberg, How Do You Solve a Problem Like Ben Carson?, New York Times. (2015) MM44.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Clinical Trials Communications
AbbreviationContemp. Clin. Trials Commun.
ISSN (print)2451-8654

Other styles