How to format your references using the Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Rubery, A year of opportunity, Nature. 410 (2001) 867–868.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Demaurex, C. Distelhorst, Cell biology. Apoptosis--the calcium connection, Science. 300 (2003) 65–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Czaplicka, J.A. Holyst, P.M.A. Sloot, Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1223.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I.M. Conboy, M.J. Conboy, A.J. Wagers, E.R. Girma, I.L. Weissman, T.A. Rando, Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment, Nature. 433 (2005) 760–764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. “MAX” Maxfield, A. Brown, The Definitive Guide to How Computers Do Math, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
B.P. Jacob, B. Ramshaw, eds., The SAGES Manual of Hernia Repair, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Eralp, İ. Eren, Knee Arthrodesis with Monolateral External Fixator for the Treatment of Infected Knee Arthroplasty, in: M. Kocaoğlu, H. Tsuchiya, L. Eralp (Eds.), Advanced Techniques in Limb Reconstruction Surgery, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 101–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications.

Blog post
J. Davis, This Creepy-Looking Robot Sweats From Its Metal “Bones” To Keep Cool, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Charter Schools: Education Could Do More to Assist Charter Schools with Applying for Discretionary Grants, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Bilbrey, The Positive Effects Extrinsic Motivation Can Have on Intrinsic Motivation in a Math Classroom, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Scouting Report, New York Times. (2010) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Clinical Trials Communications
AbbreviationContemp. Clin. Trials Commun.
ISSN (print)2451-8654

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