How to format your references using the Colorectal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Colorectal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin-Frankel J. A lonely crusade. Science. 344(6186), 793–797 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Kossinets G, Watts DJ. Empirical analysis of an evolving social network. Science. 311(5757), 88–90 (2006).
A journal article with 3 authors
Vander Heiden MG, Cantley LC, Thompson CB. Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation. Science. 324(5930), 1029–1033 (2009).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Karnoub AE, Dash AB, Vo AP, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells within tumour stroma promote breast cancer metastasis. Nature. 449(7162), 557–563 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Linder B. Thermodynamics and Introductory Statistical Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Salsa S. Equazioni a derivate parziali: Complementi ed esercizi. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Mark D, Varma J, LaMarche J, Horovitz A, Kim K. The Devil in the Detail View. In: More iPhone Development with Swift: Exploring the iOS SDK. Varma J, LaMarche J, Horovitz A, Kim K (Eds.), Apress, Berkeley, CA, 89–125 (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Colorectal Cancer.

Blog post
Davis J. Cats Responsible For Driving Many Species To Extinction [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmes K. Ethical practice online: An exploration of provider liability risk among practitioners in the emerging field of online therapy. (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. A Caretaker and Protector Dreams of the ‘Fullest’ Life Possible for Her Sister. New York Times, A17 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleColorectal Cancer
AbbreviationColorectal Cancer
ISSN (print)1758-194X
ISSN (online)1758-1958

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