How to format your references using the Colorectal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Colorectal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stroud CR Jr. Physics. Pas de deux for atomic electrons. Science. 303(5659), 778–779 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
Santen L, Krauth W. Absence of thermodynamic phase transition in a model glass former. Nature. 405(6786), 550–551 (2000).
A journal article with 3 authors
Blackburn EH, Epel ES, Lin J. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection. Science. 350(6265), 1193–1198 (2015).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Doshi R, Chen BR, Vibat CRT, Huang N, Lee C-W, Chang G. In vitro nanobody discovery for integral membrane protein targets. Sci. Rep. 4, 6760 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gatarek D, Bachert P, Maksymiuk R. The LIBOR Market Model in Practice. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Bianchini M, Maggini M, Jain LC, editors. Handbook on Neural Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Melnikov SP, Sizov AN, Sinyanskii AA, Miley GH. Lasing Mechanisms and Kinetic Models of NPLs. In: Lasers with Nuclear Pumping. Sinyanskii AA, Sizov AN, Miley GH (Eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 143–182 (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Colorectal Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Sad Truth Behind Tiger And Slow Loris Selfies [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Compliance Status of Many Biomedical Equipment Items Still Unknown. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eisenberg DA. Effectiveness of an eel curriculum on student achievement for the California earth science standard on ocean currents A comparative analysis. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. A DELICATE BALANCE: Issues -- AIDS; AIDS Speech Brings Hush to Crowd. New York Times, A21 (1992).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleColorectal Cancer
AbbreviationColorectal Cancer
ISSN (print)1758-194X
ISSN (online)1758-1958

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