How to format your references using the Colorectal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Colorectal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tutu D. Genome-sequencing anniversary. My genome. Science. 331(6018), 689 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell IH, O’Neill HSC. Evidence against a chondritic Earth. Nature. 483(7391), 553–558 (2012).
A journal article with 3 authors
Reik W, Dean W, Walter J. Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian development. Science. 293(5532), 1089–1093 (2001).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ji Q, Norell MA, Gao KQ, Ji SA, Ren D. The distribution of integumentary structures in a feathered dinosaur. Nature. 410(6832), 1084–1088 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chaudhry A, Coetsee D, Bakker E, et al. 2015 Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
van der Hoek W, Holliday WH, Wang W-F, editors. Logic, Rationality, and Interaction: 5th International Workshop, LORI 2015, Taipei, Taiwan, October 28-30, 2015. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Han L, Rossi L, Torsello A, Wilson RC, Hancock ER. Information Theoretic Prototype Selection for Unattributed Graphs. In: Structural, Syntactic, and Statistical Pattern Recognition: Joint IAPR International Workshop, SSPR&SPR 2012, Hiroshima, Japan, November 7-9, 2012. Proceedings. Gimel’farb G, Hancock E, Imiya A, et al. (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 33–41 (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Colorectal Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. Can You Solve These 5 Physics Phenomena? IFLScience (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Better Tools Needed for Making Decisions on Using ISTEA Funds Flexibly. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meyer-Barrett JM. Exercising Their Privilege to Borrow: A Demonstrated Understanding of the Obligation of Student Loans in a Community College. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. For the Mets, a Middleman on Call 24/7. New York Times, D1 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleColorectal Cancer
AbbreviationColorectal Cancer
ISSN (print)1758-194X
ISSN (online)1758-1958

Other styles