How to format your references using the Microbial Risk Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Risk Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taubes, G., 2000. ASTRONOMY: Researchers Get Spectrum Bands. Science 288, 2107–2109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bagnall, M.W., McLean, D.L., 2014. Modular organization of axial microcircuits in zebrafish. Science 343, 197–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannoni, S., Temperton, B., Zhao, Y., 2013. Giovannoni et al. reply. Nature 499, E4-5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, J., Jia, W., Huang, C.-B., Hess, R.F., 2013. The effect of unilateral mean luminance on binocular combination in normal and amblyopic vision. Sci. Rep. 3, 2012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paultre, P., 2013. Dynamics of Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jensen, K., Aalst, W.M.P. van der, Billington, J. (Eds.), 2008. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeller, A., 2012. Mining Models, in: Donaldson, A., Parker, D. (Eds.), Model Checking Software: 19th International Workshop, SPIN 2012, Oxford, UK, July 23-24, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Risk Analysis.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Bad Times Make Pea Plants Gamble [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Gulf War Illnesses: Preliminary Assessment of DOD Plume Modeling for U.S. Troops’ Exposure to Chemical Agents (No. GAO-03-833T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morr, R., 2015. Age Discrimination: Prejudice Suppression in the Selection Process (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. A Princess (Maybe) With an Identity Crisis. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taubes, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bagnall and McLean, 2014; Taubes, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bagnall and McLean, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Risk Analysis
AbbreviationMicrob. Risk Anal.
ISSN (print)2352-3522

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