How to format your references using the Microbial Risk Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Risk Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Urnov, F.D., 2014. Biological techniques: Edit the genome to understand it. Nature 513, 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
McPherson, M.S., Schapiro, M.O., 2003. Education. Funding roller coaster for public higher education. Science 302, 1157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarf, D., Hayne, H., Colombo, M., 2011. Pigeons on par with primates in numerical competence. Science 334, 1664.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maizel, A., Busch, M.A., Tanahashi, T., Perkovic, J., Kato, M., Hasebe, M., Weigel, D., 2005. The floral regulator LEAFY evolves by substitutions in the DNA binding domain. Science 308, 260–263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, K.Q.T., 2015. Wireless Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lai, P.C., Mak, A.S.H. (Eds.), 2007. GIS for Health and the Environment: Development in the Asia-Pacific Region With 110 Figures, Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Raghavendra, G.S., Prasanna Kumar, N., 2013. An ACO Framework for Single Track Railway Scheduling Problem, in: Bansal, J.C., Singh, P.K., Deep, K., Pant, M., Nagar, A.K. (Eds.), Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA 2012): Volume 1, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 39–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Risk Analysis.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. How Do Chameleons Change The Color Of Their Skin? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Head Start: Undercover Testing Finds Fraud and Abuse at Selected Head Start Centers (No. GAO-10-1049). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, P.M., 2012. Persistent Genomic Consequences of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Measured in Adolescent Rat Brain (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schembari, J., 2017. Factory Masterpieces. New York Times TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Urnov, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (McPherson and Schapiro, 2003; Urnov, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McPherson and Schapiro, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Maizel et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Risk Analysis
AbbreviationMicrob. Risk Anal.
ISSN (print)2352-3522

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