How to format your references using the Microbial Risk Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Risk Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Khodakhah, K., 2015. Neuroscience: Decrypting a brain enigma. Nature 526, 326–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eisenstein, J.P., Macdonald, A.H., 2004. Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in bilayer electron systems. Nature 432, 691–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Butov, L.V., Gossard, A.C., Chemla, D.S., 2002. Macroscopically ordered state in an exciton system. Nature 418, 751–754.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Walker, T., Johnson, P.H., Moreira, L.A., Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I., Frentiu, F.D., McMeniman, C.J., Leong, Y.S., Dong, Y., Axford, J., Kriesner, P., Lloyd, A.L., Ritchie, S.A., O’Neill, S.L., Hoffmann, A.A., 2011. The wMel Wolbachia strain blocks dengue and invades caged Aedes aegypti populations. Nature 476, 450–453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’homme, R., 2012. Flows and Chemical Reactions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tobimatsu, S., Kakigi, R. (Eds.), 2016. Clinical Applications of Magnetoencephalography, 1st ed. 2016. ed. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Sheaff, M.T., Singh, N., 2013. Serous Fluids, in: Singh, N. (Ed.), Cytopathology: An Introduction. Springer, London, pp. 101–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Risk Analysis.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Desert-Dwelling Elephants Have A Unique Culture But Common Genetics [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Information Technology Investment: A Governmentwide Overview (No. AIMD-95-208). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, A., 2010. Scribblins (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J., 2017. Life Among the Boldface Names. New York Times MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Khodakhah, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein and Macdonald, 2004; Khodakhah, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eisenstein and Macdonald, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Walker et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Risk Analysis
AbbreviationMicrob. Risk Anal.
ISSN (print)2352-3522

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