How to format your references using the Microbial Risk Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Risk Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, R., 2002. Slim pickings for silicon specialists. Nature 416, 6–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bellwood, D.R., Hughes, T.P., 2001. Regional-scale assembly rules and biodiversity of coral reefs. Science 292, 1532–1535.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, Y., Kirmizialtin, S., Sanchez, I.C., 2014. Dynamic void distribution in myoglobin and five mutants. Sci. Rep. 4, 4011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aoki, Y., Endrodi, G., Fodor, Z., Katz, S.D., Szabó, K.K., 2006. The order of the quantum chromodynamics transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics. Nature 443, 675–678.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klee, L., 2015. International Construction Contract Law. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kerschen, G. (Ed.), 2016. Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 34th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2016, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Curtiss, L.A., Zapoll, P., Sternberg, M., Redfernm, P.C., Horner, D.A., Gruen, D.M., 2005. Quantum Chemical Studies of Growth Mechanisms of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond, in: Gruen, Dieter M., Shenderova, O.A., Vul’, A.Y. (Eds.), Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond St. Petersburg, Russia 7–10 June 2004, NATO Science Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Risk Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Parasitic wasp turns roaches into zombie slaves using neurotoxic cocktail [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. No Child Left Behind Act: States Face Challenges Measuring Academic Growth (No. GAO-06-948T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seevaratnam, N., 2019. Forecasting Optimality in Resource Utilization for Cloud Computing Systems to Maximize Quality of Service (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., Steel, E., 2017. Fox News, Pledging New Culture, Ousts Another Symbol of Old One. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bellwood and Hughes, 2001; Triendl, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bellwood and Hughes, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Aoki et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Risk Analysis
AbbreviationMicrob. Risk Anal.
ISSN (print)2352-3522

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