How to format your references using the Microbial Risk Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Risk Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilmour, J., 2002. Geochemistry. The solar system’s first clocks. Science 297, 1658–1659.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chatterjee, S., Grosshans, H., 2009. Active turnover modulates mature microRNA activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 461, 546–549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eremtchenko, M., Schaefer, J.A., Tautz, F.S., 2003. Understanding and tuning the epitaxy of large aromatic adsorbates by molecular design. Nature 425, 602–605.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Swain, M.R., Deroo, P., Griffith, C.A., Tinetti, G., Thatte, A., Vasisht, G., Chen, P., Bouwman, J., Crossfield, I.J., Angerhausen, D., Afonso, C., Henning, T., 2010. A ground-based near-infrared emission spectrum of the exoplanet HD 189733b. Nature 463, 637–639.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avlonas, N., Nassos, G.P., 2013. Practical Sustainability Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mousavi, M.R., Berger, C. (Eds.), 2015. Cyber Physical Systems. Design, Modeling, and Evaluation: 5th International Workshop, CyPhy 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 8, 2015, Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Chikhaoui, B., Wang, S., Pigot, H., 2011. Activity Recognition in Smart Environments: An Information Retrieval Problem, in: Abdulrazak, B., Giroux, S., Bouchard, B., Pigot, H., Mokhtari, M. (Eds.), Toward Useful Services for Elderly and People with Disabilities: 9th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2011, Montreal, Canada, June 20-22, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Risk Analysis.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Gene-Editing Breakthrough Partially Restores Sight To Blind Rats [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Vocational Education: Status in School Year 1990-91 and Early Signs of Change at Secondary Level (No. HRD-93-71). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wyers, M.L., 2015. An Investigation of Teacher Understanding and Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Use of Learning Targets in the Classroom (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wetherille, K., 2012. Kamakura’s Trail of Treasures. New York Times 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilmour, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Chatterjee and Grosshans, 2009; Gilmour, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chatterjee and Grosshans, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Swain et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Risk Analysis
AbbreviationMicrob. Risk Anal.
ISSN (print)2352-3522

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