How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polman A. Applied physics. Plasmonics applied. Science. 2008 Nov 7;322(5903):868–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Contreras JL, Reichman JH. DATA ACCESS. Sharing by design: Data and decentralized commons. Science. 2015 Dec 11;350(6266):1312–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanotte O, Dessie T, Kemp S. Ecology. Time to tap Africa’s livestock genomes. Science. 2010 Jun 25;328(5986):1640–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mecchia MA, Santos-Fernandez G, Duss NN, Somoza SC, Boisson-Dernier A, Gagliardini V, et al. RALF4/19 peptides interact with LRX proteins to control pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis. Science. 2017 Dec 22;358(6370):1600–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brillson LJ. An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Sellers M, editor. Autonomy: In the Law. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. XI, 179 p. (Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice; vol. 1).
A chapter in an edited book
Dokholyan NV, Shakhnovich EI. Towards Unifying Protein Evolution Theory. In: Bastolla U, Porto M, Roman HE, Vendruscolo M, editors. Structural Approaches to Sequence Evolution: Molecules, Networks, Populations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 113–26. (Greenbaum E, editor. Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Norway Wants To Build The World’s First Full-Scale Ship Tunnel [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NIH Biomedical Research Support Grant Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Dec. Report No.: HRD-81-42.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al azze Q. Field-Oriented Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on DSP Controller [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Savage C, Sullivan E. Sessions Widens Official Inquiry On Media Leaks. New York Times. 2017 Aug 4;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0192-0790
ISSN (online)1539-2031

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