How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Treviño M. Stimulus similarity determines the prevalence of behavioral laterality in a visual discrimination task for mice. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 19;4:7569.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lowrance WW, Collins FS. Ethics. Identifiability in genomic research. Science. 2007 Aug 3;317(5838):600–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim SH, Duffy TS, Shen G. The post-spinel transformation in Mg2SiO4 and its relation to the 660-km seismic discontinuity. Nature. 2001 May 31;411(6837):571–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kamal A, Thao L, Sensintaffar J, Zhang L, Boehm MF, Fritz LC, et al. A high-affinity conformation of Hsp90 confers tumour selectivity on Hsp90 inhibitors. Nature. 2003 Sep 25;425(6956):407–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolley T. Low Impact Building. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Erin LM, S WMM, editors. Fibromyalgia: Clinical Guidelines and Treatments. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. X, 193 p. 6 illus., 5 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Billaut JC, Hebrard E, Lopez P. Complete Characterization of Near-Optimal Sequences for the Two-Machine Flow Shop Scheduling Problem. In: Beldiceanu N, Jussien N, Pinson É, editors. Integration of AI and OR Techniques in Contraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimzation Problems: 9th International Conference, CPAIOR 2012, Nantes, France, May 28 – June1, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 66–80. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Comets or Volcanoes? Scientists Are Changing Their Minds About How the Earth’s Water Got Here [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Fares and Service at Concentrated Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Jun. Report No.: T-RCED-89-37.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter CA. The Panhellenic Project: Assessing learning engagement using Web 2.0 technologies [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein M, Abrams R, Protess B. Private Equity Hits Close to Home. New York Times. 2016 Jun 27;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0192-0790
ISSN (online)1539-2031

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