How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hatten ME. New directions in neuronal migration. Science. 2002 Sep 6;297(5587):1660–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chien P, Weissman JS. Conformational diversity in a yeast prion dictates its seeding specificity. Nature. 2001 Mar 8;410(6825):223–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foster SL, Hargreaves DC, Medzhitov R. Gene-specific control of inflammation by TLR-induced chromatin modifications. Nature. 2007 Jun 21;447(7147):972–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Farber SA, Pack M, Ho SY, Johnson ID, Wagner DS, Dosch R, et al. Genetic analysis of digestive physiology using fluorescent phospholipid reporters. Science. 2001 May 18;292(5520):1385–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolley T. Low Impact Building. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Zaphiris P, Ioannou A, editors. Learning and Collaboration Technologies. Designing and Developing Novel Learning Experiences: First International Conference, LCT 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XXVIII, 475 p. 133 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 8523).
A chapter in an edited book
Franklin RB, Costello LC. Citrate Metabolism in Prostate and Other Cancers. In: Costello L, Singh K, editors. Mitochondria and Cancer. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. p. 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Hale T. Shocking Footage Shows A Digger Crushing A Tiger To Death. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Recommendation Concerning Claim by Teacher for Backpay in DOD Overseas Dependents Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Jul. Report No.: B-156439(JAB).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Asare KB. Understanding the Transformational Leadership Practices of Colleges of Education Principals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J, Martin J. Kansas Republican Survives Tight Congressional Race to Win House Seat. New York Times. 2017 Apr 12;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0192-0790
ISSN (online)1539-2031

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