How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spence K. Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids. Nature. 2000 Nov 16;408(6810):320–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grabbe C, Dikic I. Cell biology. Going global on ubiquitin. Science. 2008 Nov 7;322(5903):872–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bass AH, Gilland EH, Baker R. Evolutionary origins for social vocalization in a vertebrate hindbrain-spinal compartment. Science. 2008 Jul 18;321(5887):417–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Giraldo O, Brock SL, Marquez M, Suib SL, Hillhouse H, Tsapatsis M. Spontaneous formation of inorganic helices. Nature. 2000 May 4;405(6782):38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Medhurst D. A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Bernack-Schüler C, Erens R, Leuders T, Eichler A, editors. Views and Beliefs in Mathematics Education: Results of the 19th MAVI Conference. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2015. IX, 242 p. 30 illus. (Freiburger Empirische Forschung in der Mathematikdidaktik).
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmar WEL, Jullien J-F. Viscosity Effect On Displacements And Residual Stresses Of A Two-Pass Welding Plate. In: Youtsos AG, editor. Residual Stress and Its Effects on Fatigue and Fracture: Proceedings of a Special Symposium held within the 16th European Conference of Fracture – ECF16, Alexandroupolis, Greece, 3-7 July 2006. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Davis J. Ancestor Of HIV Is At Least 60 Million Years Old [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Travel: Passenger Aircraft Services Annually Cost Taxpayers Millions More Than Commercial Airlines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Aug. Report No.: GAO-05-818.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey SM. Content Assessment in Intelligent Computer-Aided Language Learning: Meaning Error Diagnosis for English as a Second Language [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets, Dealing Slugger, Will Add a Player They Hope Will Be One. New York Times. 2017 Aug 11;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0192-0790
ISSN (online)1539-2031

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