How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bar-Peled L. Science & SciLifeLab Prize Essay. Size does matter. Science. 2014 Dec 5;346(6214):1191–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burgisser A, Bergantz GW. A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies. Nature. 2011 Mar 10;471(7337):212–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dulac C, O’Connell LA, Wu Z. Neural control of maternal and paternal behaviors. Science. 2014 Aug 15;345(6198):765–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Politi Y, Arad T, Klein E, Weiner S, Addadi L. Sea urchin spine calcite forms via a transient amorphous calcium carbonate phase. Science. 2004 Nov 12;306(5699):1161–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, Brainin M. European Handbook of Neurological Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
F. Costa L da, Evsukoff A, Mangioni G, Menezes R, editors. Complex Networks: Second International Workshop, CompleNet 2010, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 13-15, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. X, 218 p. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 116).
A chapter in an edited book
Brillantes AB Jr, Sonco JOT II. Harmonizing Objectives and Outcomes at the National and Sub-National Levels Through Citizen Engagement and Capacity Building (With Special References to the Philippines). In: Martinez-Vazquez J, Searle B, editors. Fiscal Equalization: Challenges in the Design of Intergovernmental Transfers. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 95–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA Spots Giant Hole In The Sun - But What Does That Actually Mean? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Enterprise Architecture: Leadership Remains Key to Establishing and Leveraging Architectures for Organizational Transformation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Aug. Report No.: GAO-06-831.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunn TN. A Puer–Senex Archetypal Model of the Therapeutic Relationship [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Dylan’s Tapes Find a Direction Home. New York Times. 2016 Nov 11;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0192-0790
ISSN (online)1539-2031

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