How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazcano A. Global voices of science. Teaching evolution in Mexico: preaching to the choir. Science. 2005 Nov 4;310(5749):787–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deming D, Seager S. Light and shadow from distant worlds. Nature. 2009 Nov 19;462(7271):301–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wagemaker M, Kentgens APM, Mulder FM. Equilibrium lithium transport between nanocrystalline phases in intercalated TiO(2) anatase. Nature. 2002 Jul 25;418(6896):397–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gagnon E, Ranitovic P, Tong X-M, Cocke CL, Murnane MM, Kapteyn HC, et al. Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics. Science. 2007 Sep 7;317(5843):1374–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xu QA, Madden TL. Analytical Methods for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Toxicology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Siegert G, Förster K, Chan-Olmsted SM, Ots M, editors. Handbook of Media Branding. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. IX, 414 p. 25 illus., 1 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Mac an Airchinnigh M. Let Me Tell You Something about (Y)our Culture? In: Kurbanoğlu S, Al U, Lepon Erdoğan P, Tonta Y, Uçak N, editors. Technological Convergence and Social Networks in Information Management: Second International Symposium on Information Management in a Changing World, IMCW 2010, Ankara, Turkey, September 22-24, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 31–44. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Mars Has A Type Of Dune We’ve Never Seen On Earth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Early Childhood Programs: Characteristics Affect the Availability of School Readiness Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-00-38.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheat BR. Effects of intercropping switchgrass in managed pine stands on plant communities and white-tailed deer forage production [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg E. Denise Matthews, 57, Singer Known as Vanity. New York Times. 2016 Feb 17;B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0192-0790
ISSN (online)1539-2031

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