How to format your references using the Aethiopistische Forschungen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopistische Forschungen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zubelewicz, A. 2013. “Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids,” Scientific reports, 3 (2013), 1323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lowell, B. B. and G. I. Shulman 2005. “Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 307/5708 (2005), 384–387.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamaguchi, M., M. Shiga, and H. Kaburaki 2005. “Grain boundary decohesion by impurity segregation in a nickel-sulfur system,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 307/5708 (2005), 393–397.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gasque, G., S. Conway, J. Huang, Y. Rao, and L. B. Vosshall 2013. “Small molecule drug screening in Drosophila identifies the 5HT2A receptor as a feeding modulation target,” Scientific reports, 3 (2013), srep02120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krysinski, T. and F. Malburet 2013. Mechanical Instability (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013).
An edited book
Rezat, S., M. Hattermann, and A. Peter-Koop, eds., 2014. Transformation - A Fundamental Idea of Mathematics Education (New York, NY: Springer, 2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Weiss, S. M., N. Indurkhya, and T. Zhang 2015. “Finding Structure in a Document Collection,” in N. Indurkhya and T. Zhang, eds., Fundamentals of Predictive Text Mining, Texts in Computer Science (London: Springer, 2015), 97–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopistische Forschungen.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Should Florida ‘Frack’ Its Limestone For Oil And Gas? Two Geophysicists Weigh In IFLScience (IFLScience, 2016) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002. Direct Student Loans: Additional Steps Would Increase Borrowers’ Awareness of Electronic Debiting and Reduce Federal Administrative Costs ( No. GAO-02-350) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Backfish, M. 2013. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector, Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr 2017. “Actor Set to Have Key Role In Man’s Drug Murder Trial,” New York Times (May 17, 2017), A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopistische Forschungen
ISSN (print)0170-3196

Other styles