How to format your references using the Aethiopistische Forschungen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopistische Forschungen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsh, C. T. 2004. “Polyketide and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics: modularity and versatility,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 303/5665 (2004), 1805–1810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quist, D. and I. H. Chapela 2001. “Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico,” Nature, 414/6863 (2001), 541–543.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wynn, T. A., A. Chawla, and J. W. Pollard 2013. “Macrophage biology in development, homeostasis and disease,” Nature, 496/7446 (2013), 445–455.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lima, N. B. D., S. M. C. Gonçalves, S. A. Júnior, and A. M. Simas 2013. “A comprehensive strategy to boost the quantum yield of luminescence of europium complexes,” Scientific reports, 3 (2013), 2395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J. B. 2005. Digital Transmission Engineering (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005).
An edited book
Popovskij, V. 2011. Control and Adaptation in Telecommunication Systems: Mathematical Foundations, eds. A. Barkalov and L. Titarenko, 94th, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
Pashiardis, P., M. Georgiou, and M. Georghiou 2009. “Cyprus,” in J. Scheerens, ed., Informal Learning of Active Citizenship at School: An International Comparative Study in Seven European Countries (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009), 51–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopistische Forschungen.

Blog post
Hale, T. Watch This Desert Moss “Drink” Mist And Fog From The Air IFLScience (IFLScience, 2016) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014. Market Research: Better Documentation Needed to Inform Future Procurements at Selected Agencies ( No. GAO-15-8) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCallister, K. 2015. I Didn’t Mean to Show the Dirt Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. and A. Stevenson 2017. “Doubt After Health Care Defeat Briefly Sends Stocks Tumbling,” New York Times, March 27, 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopistische Forschungen
ISSN (print)0170-3196

Other styles