How to format your references using the Aethiopistische Forschungen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopistische Forschungen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson, M. R. 2009. “Computer science. Building an open Cloud,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 324/5935 (2009), 1656–1657.
A journal article with 2 authors
Devery, J. J., 3rd and C. R. J. Stephenson 2015. “Catalysis: dual catalysis at the flick of a switch,” Nature, 519/7541 (2015), 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dian, B. C., J. R. Clarkson, and T. S. Zwier 2004. “Direct measurement of energy thresholds to conformational isomerization in tryptamine,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 303/5661 (2004), 1169–1173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bell, S., B. Wüstenberg, S. Kaiser, F. Menges, T. Netscher, and A. Pfaltz 2006. “Asymmetric hydrogenation of unfunctionalized, purely alkyl-substituted olefins,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 311/5761 (2006), 642–644.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon, A. and S. Hernandez 2016. The Official (ISC) 2® Guide to the SSCP 2® CBK 2® (Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016).
An edited book
Yung, B. H. W., ed., 2006. Assessment Reform in Science: Fairness and Fear, 31st, Science & Technology Education Library (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2006).
A chapter in an edited book
Knoeferle, P. 2015. “Visually Situated Language Comprehension in Children and in Adults,” in R. K. Mishra, N. Srinivasan, and F. Huettig, eds., Attention and Vision in Language Processing (New Delhi: Springer India, 2015), 57–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopistische Forschungen.

Blog post
Fang, J. New Pulsar Resolution is One Million Times More Precise IFLScience (IFLScience, 2014) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009. Commercial Aviation: Airline Industry Contraction Due to Volatile Fuel Prices and Falling Demand Affects Airports, Passengers, and Federal Government Revenues ( No. GAO-09-393) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kay, K. 2013. A support group for older adult males struggling with depression: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sbarbaro, J. A. 2017. “Standard Morning Fare, on the Go,” New York Times, March 22, 2017, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopistische Forschungen
ISSN (print)0170-3196

Other styles