How to format your references using the Aethiopistische Forschungen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopistische Forschungen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta, L. 2006. “Protein purification: protein purification for structural proteomics,” Nature, 439/7079 (2006), 1018.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saunders, M. A. and A. S. Lea 2005. “Seasonal prediction of hurricane activity reaching the coast of the United States,” Nature, 434/7036 (2005), 1005–1008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lebrun, E. G., N. T. Jones, and L. E. Gilbert 2014. “Chemical warfare among invaders: a detoxification interaction facilitates an ant invasion,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 343/6174 (2014), 1014–1017.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blanchon, P., A. Eisenhauer, J. Fietzke, and V. Liebetrau 2009. “Rapid sea-level rise and reef back-stepping at the close of the last interglacial highstand,” Nature, 458/7240 (2009), 881–884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Papadimitriou, G. I., P. A. Tsimoulas, M. S. Obaidat, and A. S. Pomportsis 2005. Multiwavelength Optical LANs (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005).
An edited book
Hall, J., ed., 2013. Children’s Human Rights and Public Schooling in the United States, 5th, Constructing Knowledge, Curriculum Studies in Action (Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Talbott, M. R., A. Estes, C. Zierhut, G. Dawson, and S. J. Rogers 2016. “Early Start Denver Model,” in R. Lang, T. B. Hancock, and N. N. Singh, eds., Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Evidence-Based Practices in Behavioral Health (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016), 113–149.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopistische Forschungen.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. China To Build New National Park 60% Bigger Than Yellowstone To Save The Siberian Tiger IFLScience (IFLScience, 2017) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1997. F/A-18E/F Aircraft Production Decision Should Be Postponed ( No. NSIAD-97-106R) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obiedat, M. 2015. Incrementally Sorted Lattice Data Structures, Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. 2015. “Russian Local Elections Draw Charges of Fraud,” New York Times (September 14, 2015), A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopistische Forschungen
ISSN (print)0170-3196

Other styles