How to format your references using the Aethiopistische Forschungen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopistische Forschungen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kärre, K. 2002. “Immunology. A perfect mismatch,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 295/5562 (2002), 2029–2031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Padian, K. and K. P. Dial 2005. “Origin of flight: Could ‘four-winged’ dinosaurs fly?,” Nature, 438/7066 (2005), E3; discussion E3-4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harris, H. H., I. J. Pickering, and G. N. George 2003. “The chemical form of mercury in fish,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301/5637 (2003), 1203.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huang, Y., G. Zha, Q. Luo, J. Zhang, F. Zhang, Xiaohui Li, S. Zhao, W. Zhu, and Xiaodong Li 2014. “The construction of hierarchical structure on Ti substrate with superior osteogenic activity and intrinsic antibacterial capability,” Scientific reports, 4 (2014), 6172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper, N., K. Forrest, and P. Cramp 2008. Essential Guide to Acute Care (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008).
An edited book
Fatmi, M., A. Collmer, N. S. Iacobellis, J. W. Mansfield, J. Murillo, N. W. Schaad, and M. Ullrich, eds., 2008. Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars and Related Pathogens – Identification, Epidemiology and Genomics (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008).
A chapter in an edited book
Cosottini, M. 2012. “Nervi cranici,” in M. Cosottini, ed., Anatomia RM dell’encefalo, Imaging & Formazione (Milano: Springer, 2012), 75–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopistische Forschungen.

Blog post
Fang, J. Crocs Enjoy Playing With Toys and Getting Piggyback Rides IFLScience (IFLScience, 2015) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2013. National Science Foundation: Steps Taken to Improve Contracting Practices, but Opportunities Exist to Do More ( No. GAO-13-292) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kidder, E. O. 2014. Self-administered HPV Testing as a Cervical Cancer Screening Option: Exploring the Perspectives of Hispanic and Arab Women in the United States, Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Creswell, J. and L. Story 2011. “On All Levels of the Economy, Concern About the Impasse: Losing Top Rating Could Cost Growth And Job Creation,” New York Times (July 27, 2011), B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopistische Forschungen
ISSN (print)0170-3196

Other styles