How to format your references using the Aethiopistische Forschungen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopistische Forschungen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Andersson, S. G. E. 2006. “Genetics. The bacterial world gets smaller,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 314/5797 (2006), 259–260.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pilkey, O. H. and J. A. G. Cooper 2004. “Climate. Society and sea level rise,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 303/5665 (2004), 1781–1782.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freckleton, R. P., W. J. Sutherland, and A. R. Watkinson 2003. “Ecology. Deciding the future of GM crops in Europe,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 302/5647 (2003), 994–996.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yokouchi, Y., M. Ikeda, Y. Inuzuka, and T. Yukawa 2002. “Strong emission of methyl chloride from tropical plants,” Nature, 416/6877 (2002), 163–165.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ziegler, M. 2012. Geotechnische Nachweise nach EC 7 und DIN 1054 (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012).
An edited book
Pestana, E. 2010. Early, rapid and sensitive veterinary molecular diagnostics - real time PCR applications, eds. S. Belak, A. Diallo, J. R. Crowther, and G. J. Viljoen (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010).
A chapter in an edited book
Kah, O., Y. Le Page, M. Vosges, S.-K. Tong, B.-C. Chung, and F. Brion 2011. “Neural Progenitors Are Direct Targets of Xenoestrogens in Zebrafish,” in J.-P. Bourguignon, B. Jégou, B. Kerdelhué, J. Toppari, and Y. Christen, eds., Multi-System Endocrine Disruption, Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011), 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopistische Forschungen.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Trapping Light In A “Tornado” Could Have Major Implications IFLScience (IFLScience, 2014) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1966. Comments on Bill To Amend NASA Act of 1958 ( No. B-141387) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spindel, S. A. 2014. Evaluation of optical sensor platforms for multiplexed detection of proteins Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. 2002. “Alicia Keys Is the Talk Of Her Old Neighborhood,” New York Times, February 24, 2002, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopistische Forschungen
ISSN (print)0170-3196

Other styles